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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Form 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

or

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from to

 

Commission File no. 1-07615

 

 

Kirby Corporation

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Nevada

74-1884980

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

55 Waugh Drive, Suite 1000

 

Houston, Texas

77007

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:

713-435-1000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock

KEX

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No ☒

The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2021, based on the closing sales price of such stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2021, was $3,605,823,000. For purposes of this computation, all executive officers, directors and 10% beneficial owners of the registrant are deemed to be affiliates. Such determination should not be deemed an admission that such executive officers, directors and 10% beneficial owners are affiliates.

As of February 17, 2022, 60,201,000 shares of common stock were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Company’s definitive proxy statement in connection with the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held April 26, 2022, to be filed with the Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.

 

 

 


 

KIRBY CORPORATION
2021 FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

Item 1. Business

3

 

THE COMPANY

3

 

Documents and Information Available on Website

3

 

BUSINESS AND PROPERTY

3

 

MARINE TRANSPORTATION

4

 

Marine Transportation Industry Fundamentals

5

 

Inland Tank Barge Industry

5

 

Coastal Tank Barge Industry

6

 

Competition in the Tank Barge Industry

6

 

Products Transported

7

 

Demand Drivers in the Tank Barge Industry

7

 

Marine Transportation Operations

8

 

Contracts and Customers

10

 

Properties

11

 

Governmental Regulations

11

 

Environmental Regulations

12

 

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICES

14

 

Commercial and Industrial Operations

14

 

Commercial and Industrial Customers

16

 

Commercial and Industrial Competitive Conditions

16

 

Oil and Gas Operations

16

 

Oil and Gas Customers

17

 

Oil and Gas Competitive Conditions

17

 

Properties

17

 

Human Capital

17

 

Information about the Company’s Executive Officers

19

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

21

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

28

 

Item 2. Properties

28

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

28

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

28

PART II

 

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

28

 

Item 6. Reserved

28

 

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

29

 

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

45

 

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

45

 

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

45

 

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

46

 

Item 9B. Other Information

46

 

Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

46

PART III

 

 

Items 10 Through 14

46

PART IV

 

 

Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

80

 

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

81

 

2


 

PART I

Item 1. Business

THE COMPANY

Kirby Corporation (the “Company”) is the nation’s largest domestic tank barge operator, transporting bulk liquid products throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, and coastwise along all three United States coasts. The Company transports petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products, and agricultural chemicals by tank barge. Through its distribution and services segment, the Company sells after-market service and genuine replacement parts for engines, transmissions, reduction gears, and power generation equipment used in oil and gas and commercial and industrial applications. The Company also rents a variety of power generation and industrial equipment, manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, and manufactures electric power generation equipment for oilfield customers.

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references herein to the Company include the Company and its subsidiaries. The Company’s principal executive office is located at 55 Waugh Drive, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77007, and its telephone number is 713-435-1000. The Company’s mailing address is P.O. Box 1745, Houston, Texas 77251-1745. Kirby Corporation is a Nevada corporation and was incorporated in 1969 although the history of the Company goes back to 1921.

Documents and Information Available on Website

The Internet address of the Company’s website is http://www.kirbycorp.com. The Company makes available free of charge through its website, all of its filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), including its Annual Report on Form 10‑K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10‑Q, Current Reports on Form 8‑K and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

The following documents are available on the Company’s website in the Investor Relations section under Corporate Governance:

Audit Committee Charter
Compensation Committee Charter
ESG and Nominating Committee Charter
Business Ethics Guidelines
Corporate Governance Guidelines

The Company is required to make prompt disclosure of any amendment to or waiver of any provision of its Business Ethics Guidelines that applies to any director or executive officer or to its chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief accounting officer or controller or persons performing similar functions. The Company will make any such disclosure that may be necessary by posting the disclosure on its website in the Investor Relations section under Corporate Governance.

BUSINESS AND PROPERTY

The Company, through its subsidiaries, conducts operations in two reportable business segments: marine transportation and distribution and services.

The Company, through its marine transportation segment, is a provider of marine transportation services, operating tank barges and towing vessels transporting bulk liquid products throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, and coastwise along all three United States coasts. The Company transports petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products, and agricultural chemicals by tank barge. The Company operates offshore dry-bulk barge and tugboat units engaged in the offshore transportation of dry-bulk cargoes in the United States coastal trade. The segment is a provider of transportation services for its customers and, in almost all cases, does not assume ownership of the products that it transports. All of the Company’s vessels operate under the United States flag and are qualified for domestic trade under the Jones Act.

The Company, through its distribution and services segment, sells after-market service and genuine replacement parts for engines, transmissions, reduction gears, electric motors, drives, and controls, specialized electrical distribution and control systems, energy storage battery systems, and related oilfield services equipment, rebuilds component parts or entire diesel engines, transmissions and reduction gears, and related equipment used in oilfield services, marine, power generation, on-highway and other industrial applications. The Company also rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, high capacity lift trucks, and refrigeration trailers for use in a variety of industrial markets, and manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, and manufacturers electric power generation equipment, specialized electrical distribution and control equipment, and high capacity energy storage/battery systems for oilfield customers.

The Company has approximately 5,125 employees, the large majority of whom are in the United States.

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MARINE TRANSPORTATION

The marine transportation segment is primarily a provider of transportation services by tank barge for the inland and coastal markets. As of December 31, 2021, the equipment owned or operated by the marine transportation segment consisted of 1,025 inland tank barges with 22.9 million barrels of capacity, and an average of 255 inland towboats during the fourth quarter of 2021, as well as 31 coastal tank barges with 3.1 million barrels of capacity, 29 coastal tugboats, four offshore dry-bulk cargo barges, four offshore tugboats and one docking tugboat with the following specifications and capacities:

 

Class of equipment

 

Number in
class

 

 

Average age
(in years)

 

 

Barrel
capacities

 

Inland tank barges (owned and leased):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regular double hull:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20,000 barrels and under

 

 

348

 

 

 

14.5

 

 

 

4,050,000

 

Over 20,000 barrels

 

 

623

 

 

 

12.9

 

 

 

17,907,000

 

Specialty double hull

 

 

54

 

 

 

36.3

 

 

 

913,000

 

Total inland tank barges

 

 

1,025

 

 

 

14.7

 

 

 

22,870,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inland towboats (owned and chartered):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

800 to 1300 horsepower

 

 

34

 

 

 

34.9

 

 

 

 

1400 to 1900 horsepower

 

 

26

 

 

 

22.1

 

 

 

 

2000 to 2400 horsepower

 

 

148

 

 

 

11.7

 

 

 

 

2500 to 3200 horsepower

 

 

33

 

 

 

10.9

 

 

 

 

3300 to 4800 horsepower

 

 

9

 

 

 

21.2

 

 

 

 

Greater than 5000 horsepower

 

 

5

 

 

 

22.1

 

 

 

 

Total inland towboats

 

 

255

 

 

 

16.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coastal tank barges (owned and leased):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30,000 barrels and under

 

 

2

 

 

 

27.1

 

 

 

37,000

 

50,000 to 70,000 barrels

 

 

4

 

 

 

15.2

 

 

 

163,000

 

80,000 to 90,000 barrels

 

 

10

 

 

 

18.3

 

 

 

849,000

 

100,000 to 110,000 barrels

 

 

6

 

 

 

15.5

 

 

 

630,000

 

120,000 to 150,000 barrels

 

 

3

 

 

 

20.0

 

 

 

416,000

 

Over 150,000 barrels

 

 

6

 

 

 

6.1

 

 

 

1,046,000

 

Total coastal tank barges

 

 

31

 

 

 

15.7

 

 

 

3,141,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coastal tugboats (owned and chartered):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2000 to 2900 horsepower

 

 

1

 

 

 

46.1

 

 

 

 

3000 to 3900 horsepower

 

 

3

 

 

 

32.7

 

 

 

 

4000 to 4900 horsepower

 

 

8

 

 

 

12.2

 

 

 

 

5000 to 6900 horsepower

 

 

11

 

 

 

5.7

 

 

 

 

Greater than 7000 horsepower

 

 

6

 

 

 

11.5

 

 

 

 

Total coastal tugboats

 

 

29

 

 

 

12.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deadweight
Tonnage

 

Offshore dry-bulk cargo barges (owned)

 

 

4

 

 

 

23.1

 

 

 

67,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Offshore tugboats and docking tugboat (owned and chartered)

 

 

5

 

 

 

30.5

 

 

 

 

 

The 255 inland towboats, 29 coastal tugboats, four offshore tugboats and one docking tugboat provide the power source and the 1,025 inland tank barges, 31 coastal tank barges and four offshore dry-bulk cargo barges provide the freight capacity for the marine transportation segment. When the power source and freight capacity are combined, the unit is called a tow. The Company’s inland tows generally consist of one towboat and from one to up to 25 tank barges, depending upon the horsepower of the towboat, the waterway infrastructure capacity and conditions, and customer requirements. The Company’s coastal and offshore tows primarily consist of one tugboat and one tank barge or dry-bulk cargo barge.

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Marine Transportation Industry Fundamentals

The United States inland waterway system, composed of a network of interconnected rivers and canals that serve the nation as water highways, is one of the world’s most efficient transportation systems. The nation’s inland waterways are vital to the United States distribution system, with over 1.1 billion short tons of cargo moved annually on United States shallow draft waterways. The inland waterway system extends approximately 26,000 miles, 12,000 miles of which are generally considered significant for domestic commerce, through 38 states, with 635 shallow draft ports. These navigable inland waterways link the United States heartland to the world.

The United States coastal waterway system consists of ports along the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts, as well as ports in Alaska, Hawaii and on the Great Lakes. Like the inland waterways, the coastal trade is vital to the United States distribution system, particularly the regional distribution of refined petroleum products from refineries and storage facilities to a variety of destinations, including other refineries, distribution terminals, power plants and ships. In addition to distribution directly from refineries and storage facilities, coastal tank barges are used frequently to distribute products from pipelines. Many coastal markets receive refined petroleum products principally from coastal tank barges. Smaller volumes of petrochemicals are distributed from Gulf Coast plants to end users whereas black oil, including crude oil and natural gas condensate, is distributed regionally from refineries and terminals along the United States coast to refineries, power plants and distribution terminals.

Based on cost, safety, and level of emissions, barge transportation is often the most efficient and safest means of surface transportation of bulk commodities when compared to railroads and trucks. The cargo capacity of a 27,500 barrel inland tank barge is the equivalent of 46 railroad tank cars or 144 tractor-trailer tank trucks. A typical Company lower Mississippi River linehaul tow of 15 barges has the carrying capacity of approximately 216 railroad tank cars plus six locomotives, or approximately 1,050 tractor-trailer tank trucks. The Company’s inland tank barge fleet capacity of 22.9 million barrels equates to approximately 38,300 railroad tank cars or approximately 120,000 tractor-trailer tank trucks. Furthermore, barging is much more energy efficient. One ton of bulk product can be carried 675 miles by inland barge on one gallon of fuel, compared to 472 miles by railcar or 151 miles by truck. From an emissions perspective, transport by rail and tractor-trailer tank trucks emit approximately 40% and 800%, respectively, more CO2 per ton mile of cargo transported than by inland tank barge. In the coastal trade, the carrying capacity of a 100,000 barrel tank barge is the equivalent of approximately 165 railroad tank cars or approximately 525 tractor-trailer tank trucks. The Company’s coastal tank barge fleet capacity of 3.1 million barrels equates to approximately 5,250 railroad tank cars or approximately 16,450 tractor-trailer tank trucks. Marine transportation generally involves less urban exposure than railroad or truck transportation and operates on a system with few crossing junctures and often in areas relatively remote from population centers. These factors generally help to reduce the number of waterway incidents.

Inland Tank Barge Industry

The Company operates within the United States inland tank barge industry, a diverse and independent mixture of approximately 30 large integrated transportation companies and small operators, as well as captive fleets owned by refining and petrochemical companies. The inland tank barge industry provides marine transportation of bulk liquid cargoes for customers and, in the case of captives, for their own account, throughout the Mississippi River and its tributaries and on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The most significant markets in this industry include the transportation of petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products, and agricultural chemicals. The Company operates in each of these markets. The use of marine transportation by the petroleum and petrochemical industry is a major reason for the location of United States refineries and petrochemical facilities on navigable inland waterways. Texas and Louisiana currently account for approximately 80% of the United States production of petrochemicals. Much of the United States farm belt is likewise situated with access to the inland waterway system, relying on marine transportation of farm products, including agricultural chemicals. The Company’s principal distribution system encompasses the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway from Brownsville, Texas, to Port St. Joe, Florida, the Mississippi River System and the Houston Ship Channel. The Mississippi River System includes the Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Red, Tennessee, Yazoo, Ouachita and Black Warrior Rivers and the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.

The number of tank barges that operate on the inland waterways of the United States declined from an estimated 4,200 in 1982 to 2,900 in 1993, remained relatively constant at 2,900 until 2002, decreased to 2,750 from 2002 through 2006, then increased to approximately 4,000 by the end of 2019, and remained relatively flat during 2020 and 2021. The Company believes the decrease from 4,200 in 1982 to 2,750 in 2006 primarily resulted from the increasing age of the domestic tank barge fleet, which resulted in scrapping; rates inadequate to justify new construction; a reduction in tax incentives, which previously encouraged speculative construction of new equipment; stringent operating standards to adequately cope with safety and environmental risk; the elimination of government regulations and programs supporting the many small refineries and the proliferation of oil traders which created a strong demand for tank barge services; an increase in the average capacity per barge; and an increase in environmental regulations that mandate expensive equipment modification, which some owners were unwilling or unable to undertake given capital constraints and the age of their fleets. The cost of tank barge hull work for required periodic United States Coast Guard (“USCG”) certifications, as well as general safety and environmental concerns, force operators to periodically reassess their ability to recover maintenance costs. The increase from 2,750 tank barges in 2006 to approximately 4,000 by the end of 2019 primarily resulted from increased barge construction and deferred retirements

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due to strong demand and resulting capacity shortages. The number of industry tank barges has remained relatively constant from 2019 through the end of 2021. The Company’s 1,025 inland tank barges represent approximately 26% of the industry’s approximately 4,000 inland tank barges.

For 2019, the Company estimated that industry-wide 150 new tank barges were placed in service and 100 tank barges were retired. For 2020, the Company estimated that industry-wide approximately 150 new tank barges were placed in service and 150 tank barges were retired. For 2021, the Company estimated that industry-wide 70 new tank barges were placed in service and 90 tank barges were retired. During 2019, the Company's inland tank barge utilization rates increased above 90% due to a favorable pricing environment for customers’ products, new petrochemical industry capacity that led to increased movements of petrochemicals, and higher volumes of crude oil moved from the Northern U.S. to the Gulf Coast. During 2020, the Company's tank barge utilization decreased from the low to mid-90% range in the 2020 first quarter to the high 60% range during the 2020 fourth quarter as a result of a reduction in demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic. During 2021, the Company's inland barge utilization improved to the mid-to high 80% range by the fourth quarter as the economy began to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company estimates that approximately 5 to 10 new tank barges have currently been ordered for delivery in 2022. Generally, the risk of an oversupply of tank barges may be mitigated by increased petrochemical, black oil and refined petroleum products volumes from increased production from current facilities, plant expansions, the opening of new facilities, and the fact that the inland tank barge industry has approximately 385 tank barges that are 30 years old or older and approximately 280 of those are 40 years old or older, which could lead to retirement of these older tank barges. The average age of the nation’s inland tank barge fleet is approximately 15 years.

The Company’s inland marine transportation segment also owns a shifting operation and fleeting facility for dry cargo barges and tank barges on the Houston Ship Channel, in Freeport and Port Arthur, Texas, and Lake Charles, Louisiana, and a shipyard for building inland towboats and providing routine maintenance on marine vessels. The Company also owns a two-thirds interest in Osprey Line, L.L.C. (“Osprey”), a transporter of project cargoes and cargo containers by barge on the United States inland waterway system.

Coastal Tank Barge Industry

The Company also operates in the United States coastal tank barge industry, operating tank barges in the 195,000 barrels or less category. This market is composed of approximately 20 large integrated transportation companies and small operators. The 195,000 barrels or less category coastal tank barge industry primarily provides regional marine transportation distribution of bulk liquid cargoes along the United States’ Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts, in Alaska and Hawaii, and to a lesser extent, on the Great Lakes. Products transported are primarily refined petroleum products and black oil from refineries and storage facilities to a variety of destinations, including other refineries, distribution terminals, power plants and ships, the regional movement of crude oil and natural gas condensate to Gulf Coast, Northeast and West Coast refineries, and the movement of petrochemicals primarily from Gulf Coast petrochemical facilities to end users.

The number of coastal tank barges that operate in the 195,000 barrels or less category is approximately 270, of which the Company operates 31 or approximately 11%. The average age of the nation’s coastal tank barge fleet is approximately 15 years. The Company is aware of one small specialized coastal articulated tank barge and tugboat unit ("ATB") that was delivered in the first quarter of 2021 with no further coastal barges currently under construction. The coastal tank barge fleet has approximately 20 tank barges that are over 25 years old. The number of older tank barges, coupled with low industry-wide barge utilization levels and ballast water treatment regulations, could lead to further retirements of these older tank barges in the next few years.

Competition in the Tank Barge Industry

The tank barge industry is very competitive. Competition in this business is based on price and reliability, with many of the industry’s customers emphasizing enhanced vetting requirements, an increased emphasis on safety, the environment, and high quality service consistent with the customer's operational standards. Customers also require that their supplier of tank barge services have the ability to handle a variety of requirements, including distribution capabilities throughout the inland waterway system and coastal markets, high levels of flexibility, and an emphasis on safety, environmental and financial responsibility, as well as appropriate insurance coverage.

In the inland markets, the Company’s direct competitors are primarily noncaptive inland tank barge operators. “Captive” fleets are owned by refining and petrochemical companies which occasionally compete in the inland tank barge market, but primarily transport cargoes for their own account. The Company is the largest inland tank barge carrier, both in terms of number of barges and total fleet barrel capacity. The Company’s inland tank barge fleet has grown from 71 tank barges in 1988 to 1,025 tank barges as of December 31, 2021, or approximately 26% of the estimated total number of domestic inland tank barges.

In the coastal markets, the Company’s direct competitors are the operators of United States tank barges in the 195,000 barrels or less category. Coastal tank barges in the 195,000 barrels or less category have the ability to enter the majority of coastal ports. Ocean-going tank barges and United States product tankers in the 300,000 barrels plus category, excluding the fleet of large tankers dedicated to Alaska crude oil transportation, occasionally compete in the 195,000 barrels or less market to move large volumes of refined petroleum

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products within the Gulf of Mexico with occasional movements from the Gulf Coast to the East Coast, along the West Coast and from Texas and Louisiana to Florida. However, of the approximately 45 such vessels, because of their size, their access to ports is limited by terminal size and draft restrictions.

While the Company competes primarily with other tank barge companies, it also competes with companies who operate refined product and petrochemical pipelines, railroad tank cars, and tractor-trailer tank trucks. As noted above, the Company believes that both inland and coastal marine transportation of bulk liquid products enjoy a substantial cost advantage over railroad and truck transportation. The Company believes that refined product and crude oil pipelines, although often a less expensive form of transportation than inland and coastal tank barges, are not as adaptable to diverse products and are generally limited to fixed point-to-point distribution of commodities in high volumes over extended periods of time.

Products Transported

The Company transports petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products, and agricultural chemicals by tank barge throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, and coastwise along all three United States coasts. During 2021, the Company’s inland marine transportation operation moved over 47 million tons of liquid cargo on the United States inland waterway system.

Petrochemicals. Bulk liquid petrochemicals transported include such products as benzene, styrene, methanol, acrylonitrile, xylene, naphtha and caustic soda. These products are consumed in the production of paper, fiber and plastics. Pressurized products, including butadiene, isobutane, propylene, butane and propane, all requiring pressurized conditions to remain in stable liquid form, are transported in pressure barges. The transportation of petrochemical products represented 50% of the segment’s 2021 revenues. Customers shipping these products are petrochemical and refining companies.

Black Oil. Black oil transported includes such products as residual fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, coker feedstock, vacuum gas oil, asphalt, carbon black feedstock, crude oil, natural gas condensate and ship bunkers (engine fuel). Such products represented 26% of the segment’s 2021 revenues. Black oil customers are refining companies, marketers, and end users that require the transportation of black oil between refineries and storage terminals, to other refineries and to power plants. Ship bunker customers are oil companies and oil traders in the bunkering business.

Refined Petroleum Products. Refined petroleum products transported include the various blends of finished gasoline, gasoline blendstocks, jet fuel, No. 2 oil, heating oil and diesel fuel, and represented 20% of the segment’s 2021 revenues. The Company also classifies ethanol in the refined petroleum products category. Customers are oil and refining companies, marketers and ethanol producers.

Agricultural Chemicals. Agricultural chemicals transported represented 4% of the segment’s 2021 revenues. Agricultural chemicals include anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen-based liquid fertilizer, as well as industrial ammonia. Agricultural chemical customers consist mainly of domestic and foreign producers of such products.

Demand Drivers in the Tank Barge Industry

Demand for tank barge transportation services is driven by the production volumes of the bulk liquid commodities. Marine transportation demand for the segment’s four primary commodity groups, petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals, is based on differing circumstances. While the demand drivers of each commodity are different, the Company has the flexibility, in certain cases, of reallocating inland equipment and coastal equipment among the petrochemical, refined petroleum products and black oil markets as needed.

Petrochemical products are used in both consumer non-durable and durable goods. Bulk petrochemical volumes have historically tracked the general domestic economy and correlate to the United States Gross Domestic Product. Barge utilization ranged from the low to mid-90% range during the majority of 2019 as a result of a favorable pricing environment for customers’ products, new petrochemical industry capacity that led to increased movements of petrochemicals, and the continued retirement of older barges from the segment’s fleet. During 2020, Gulf Coast petrochemical plants saw reduced production levels as a result of lower demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic thereby decreasing marine transportation volumes of basic petrochemicals to both domestic consumers and terminals for export destinations. In addition, during the 2020 third quarter, the petrochemical complex along the Gulf Coast was impacted by hurricanes and tropical storms, further reducing barge volumes and closing critical waterways for extended periods of time. As a result, barge utilization decreased from the low to mid-90% range during the 2020 first quarter to the high 60% range in the 2020 fourth quarter and then recovered to the mid-to high 80% range in the 2021 fourth quarter as the economy improved. Coastal tank barge utilization for the transportation of petrochemicals remained steady in the mid-to-high 80% range for 2019 through 2021 due to a high percentage of term contracts.

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The demand for black oil, including ship bunkers, varies by type of product transported. Demand for transportation of residual oil, a heavy by-product of refining operations, varies with refinery utilization and usage of feedstocks. During 2019 through 2021, the Company continued to transport crude oil and natural gas condensate produced from the Eagle Ford and Permian Basin shale formations in Texas both along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway with inland vessels and in the Gulf of Mexico with coastal equipment, and continued to transport Utica crude oil and natural gas condensate downriver from the Mid-Atlantic to the Gulf Coast, albeit, at reduced levels as some of the product was transported by newly constructed pipelines. During 2020, the Company experienced a further decrease in volumes being transported along these routes as a result of reduced demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic and oil price volatility during the year. During 2021, volumes recovered from the lows seen in 2020 as economic activity improved. During 2019, strong demand for crude oil and natural gas condensate movements resulted in inland black oil tank barge utilization in the mid-to high 90% range. During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced demand for crude oil and natural gas condensate movements and resulted in a decrease in black oil tank barge utilization from the low to mid-90% range during the 2020 first half to the mid-60% to low 70% range during the 2020 second half. During 2021, as economic activity improved, black oil tank barge utilization averaged in the mid 70% range during the first nine months of 2021 and recovered to the high 80% range in the 2021 fourth quarter. Coastal black oil tank barge utilization averaged in the high 90% range in 2019 due to the retirement of coastal barges throughout the industry and declined slightly to the mid 90% range in 2020 and 2021 despite the reduced demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic as utilization was supported by a high percentage of term contracts. Inland and coastal asphalt shipments are generally seasonal, with higher volumes shipped during April through November, months when weather allows for efficient road construction.

Refined petroleum product volumes are driven by United States gasoline and diesel fuel consumption, principally vehicle usage, air travel, and weather conditions. Volumes can also be affected by gasoline inventory imbalances within the United States. Generally, gasoline and No. 2 oil are exported from the Gulf Coast where refining capacity exceeds demand. The Midwest is a net importer of such products. Volumes were also driven by diesel fuel transported to terminals along the Gulf Coast for export to South America. Ethanol, produced in the Midwest, is moved from the Midwest to the Gulf Coast. In the coastal trade, tank barges are frequently used regionally to transport refined petroleum products from a coastal refinery or terminals served by pipelines to the end markets. Many coastal areas rely upon access to refined petroleum products by using marine transportation in the distribution chain. Coastal refined petroleum products tank barge utilization in 2019 was in the low 70% range primarily due to the retirement of out-of-service coastal barges during prior years and improved customer demand resulting in higher barge utilization in the spot market in 2019. In 2020, coastal refined petroleum products tank barge utilization declined to the low 60% range due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting reduction in demand and recovered into the low 70% range in the 2021 fourth quarter due to increased business activity and the retirement of underutilized equipment in the 2021 third quarter.

Demand for marine transportation of domestic and imported agricultural fertilizer is seasonal and directly related to domestic nitrogen-based liquid fertilizer consumption, driven by the production of corn, cotton and wheat. During periods of high natural gas prices, the manufacturing of nitrogen-based liquid fertilizer in the United States is curtailed. During these periods, imported products, which normally involve longer barge trips, replace the domestic products to meet Midwest and South Texas demands. Such products are delivered to the numerous small terminals and distributors throughout the United States farm belt.

Marine Transportation Operations

The marine transportation segment operated a fleet of 1,025 inland tank barges and an average of 255 inland towboats during the 2021 fourth quarter, as well as 31 coastal tank barges and 29 coastal tugboats. The segment also operated four offshore dry-bulk cargo barges, four offshore tugboats and one docking tugboat transporting dry-bulk commodities in United States coastal trade.

Inland Operations. The segment’s inland operations are conducted through a wholly owned subsidiary, Kirby Inland Marine, LP (“Kirby Inland Marine”). Kirby Inland Marine’s operations consist of the Canal, Linehaul and River fleets, as well as barge fleeting services.

The Canal fleet transports petrochemical feedstocks, processed chemicals, pressurized products, black oil, and refined petroleum products along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, the Mississippi River below Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and the Houston Ship Channel. Petrochemical feedstocks and certain pressurized products are transported from one plant to another plant for further processing. Processed chemicals and certain pressurized products are moved to waterfront terminals and chemical plants. Black oil is transported to waterfront terminals and products such as No. 6 fuel oil are transported directly to the end users. Refined petroleum products are transported to waterfront terminals along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway for distribution.

The Linehaul fleet transports petrochemical feedstocks, chemicals, agricultural chemicals and lube oils along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Mississippi River and the Illinois and Ohio Rivers. Loaded tank barges are staged in the Baton Rouge area from Gulf Coast refineries and petrochemical plants, and are transported from Baton Rouge, Louisiana to waterfront terminals and plants on the Mississippi, Illinois and Ohio Rivers, and along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, on regularly scheduled linehaul tows. Tank barges are dropped off and picked up going up and down river.

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The River fleet transports petrochemical feedstocks, chemicals, refined petroleum products, agricultural chemicals and black oil along the Mississippi River System above Baton Rouge. The River fleet operates unit tows, where a towboat and generally a dedicated group of barges operate on consecutive voyages between loading and discharge points. Petrochemical feedstocks and processed chemicals are transported to waterfront petrochemical and chemical plants, while black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals are transported to waterfront terminals.

The inland transportation of petrochemical feedstocks, chemicals and pressurized products is generally consistent throughout the year. Transportation of refined petroleum products, certain black oil and agricultural chemicals is generally more seasonal. Movements of black oil, such as asphalt, generally increase in the spring through fall months. Movements of refined petroleum products, such as gasoline blends, generally increase during the summer driving season, while heating oil movements generally increase during the winter months. Movements of agricultural chemicals generally increase during the spring and fall planting seasons.

The marine transportation inland operation moves and handles a broad range of sophisticated cargoes. To meet the specific requirements of the cargoes transported, the inland tank barges may be equipped with self-contained heating systems, high-capacity pumps, pressurized tanks, refrigeration units, stainless steel tanks, aluminum tanks or specialty coated tanks. Of the 1,025 inland tank barges currently operated, 787 are petrochemical and refined petroleum products barges, 153 are black oil barges, 75 are pressure barges and 10 are refrigerated anhydrous ammonia barges. Of the 1,025 inland tank barges, 983 are owned by the Company and 42 are leased.

The fleet of 255 inland towboats for the 2021 fourth quarter ranges from 800 to 6,100 horsepower. Of the 255 inland towboats, 211 are owned by the Company and 44 are chartered. Towboats in the 800 to 2,100 horsepower classes provide power for barges used by the Canal and Linehaul fleets on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Houston Ship Channel. Towboats in the 1,400 to 3,200 horsepower classes provide power for both the River and Linehaul fleets on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River System. Towboats above 3,600 horsepower are typically used on the Mississippi River System to move River fleet unit tows and provide Linehaul fleet towing. Based on the capabilities of the individual towboats used in the Mississippi River System, the tows range in size from 10,000 to 30,000 tons.

Marine transportation services for inland movements are conducted under term contracts, which have contract terms of 12 months or longer, or spot contracts, which have contract terms of less than 12 months, with customers with whom the Company has traditionally had long-standing relationships. Typically, term contracts range from one to three years, some of which have renewal options. During 2019, 2020, and 2021 approximately 65% of inland marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 35% were spot contract revenues.

All of the Company’s inland tank barges used in the transportation of bulk liquid products are of double hull construction and are capable of controlling vapor emissions during loading and discharging operations in compliance with occupational safety and health regulations and air quality regulations.

The Company has the ability to offer its customers optimized distribution capabilities throughout the Mississippi River System and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. Such capabilities offer economies of scale from matching tank barges, towboats, products, and destinations efficiently to meet its customers’ requirements.

Through the Company’s proprietary vessel management computer system, the Company’s barge and towboat fleet is dispatched from a centralized dispatch group. The towboats are equipped with cellular and satellite positioning and communication systems that automatically transmit the location of the towboat to the Company’s customer service department. Electronic orders are communicated to vessel personnel with reports of towing activities fed back electronically to the customer service department. The electronic interface between the customer service department and the vessel enables matching of customer needs to barge capabilities, thereby promoting efficient utilization of the tank barge and towboat fleet. The Company’s customers are able to access information concerning the movement of their cargoes, including barge locations, through the Company’s proprietary electronic customer service portal.

Kirby Inland Marine operates the largest commercial tank barge fleeting service (barge storage facilities) in numerous ports, including Houston, Corpus Christi, Freeport and Orange, Texas, Baton Rouge, Lake Charles and New Orleans, Louisiana, Mobile, Alabama, and Greenville, Mississippi. Included in the fleeting service is a shifting operation and fleeting service for dry cargo barges and tank barges on the Houston Ship Channel, in Freeport and Port Arthur, Texas, and Lake Charles, Louisiana. Kirby Inland Marine provides shifting and fleeting service for its own barges, as well as for customers and third party carriers, transferring barges within the areas noted.

Kirby Inland Marine also provides shore-based barge tankermen to the Company and third parties. Services to the Company and third parties cover the Gulf Coast, mid-Mississippi Valley, and the Ohio River Valley.

San Jac Marine, LLC (“San Jac”), a subsidiary of Kirby Inland Marine, owns and operates a shipyard in Channelview, Texas which builds marine vessels for both inland and coastal applications, and provide maintenance and repair services. Kirby Inland Marine also builds inland towboats and performs routine maintenance and repairs at the shipyard.

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The Company owns a two-thirds interest in Osprey, which transports project cargoes and cargo containers by barge on the United States inland waterway system.

Coastal Operations. The segment’s coastal operations are conducted through wholly owned subsidiaries, Kirby Offshore Marine, LLC (“Kirby Offshore Marine”) and Kirby Ocean Transport Company (“Kirby Ocean Transport”).

Kirby Offshore Marine provides marine transportation of refined petroleum products, petrochemicals and black oil in coastal regions of the United States. The coastal operations consist of the Atlantic and Pacific Divisions.

The Atlantic Division primarily operates along the eastern seaboard of the United States and along the Gulf Coast. The Atlantic Division vessels call on various coastal ports from Maine to Texas, servicing refineries, storage terminals and power plants. The Atlantic Division also operates equipment, to a lesser extent, in the Eastern Canadian provinces. The tank barges operating in the Atlantic Division are in the 10,000 to 194,000 barrels capacity range and coastal tugboats in the 2,400 to 10,000 horsepower range, transporting primarily refined petroleum products, petrochemicals and black oil.

The Pacific Division primarily operates along the Pacific Coast of the United States, servicing refineries and storage terminals from Southern California to Washington State. The Pacific Division’s fleet consists of tank barges in the 52,000 to 193,000 barrels capacity range and tugboats in the 3,700 to 11,000 horsepower range, transporting primarily refined petroleum products.

The coastal transportation of refined petroleum products and black oil is impacted by seasonality and is partially dependent on the area of operations. Operations along the West Coast of the United States have been subject to more seasonal variations in demand than the operations along the East Coast and Gulf Coast regions of the United States. Movements of refined petroleum products such as various blends of gasoline are strongest during the summer driving season while heating oil generally increases during the winter months.

The coastal fleet consists of 31 tank barges with 3.1 million barrels of capacity, primarily transporting refined petroleum products, black oil and petrochemicals. The Company owns 30 of the coastal tank barges and leases one barge. Of the 31 coastal tank barges, 22 are refined petroleum products and petrochemical barges and 9 are black oil barges. The Company operates 29 coastal tugboats ranging from 2,400 to 11,000 horsepower, of which 26 are owned by the Company and three are chartered.

Coastal marine transportation services are conducted under long-term contracts, primarily one year or longer, some of which have renewal options, for customers with which the Company has traditionally had long-standing relationships. During and 2021 and 2019, approximately 80% of the coastal marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 20% were spot contract revenues. During 2020, approximately 85% of the coastal marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 15% were spot contract revenues.

Kirby Offshore Marine also operates a fleet of two offshore dry-bulk barge and tugboat units involved in the transportation of sugar and other dry products between Florida and East Coast ports. These vessels primarily operate under long-term contracts of affreightment.

Kirby Ocean Transport owns and operates a fleet of two offshore dry-bulk barges, two offshore tugboats and one docking tugboat. Kirby Ocean Transport operates primarily under term contracts of affreightment, including a contract that expires in 2022 with Duke Energy Florida (“DEF”) to transport coal across the Gulf of Mexico to DEF’s power generation facility at Crystal River, Florida.

Kirby Ocean Transport is also engaged in the transportation of coal, fertilizer, sugar and other bulk cargoes on a short-term basis between domestic ports and occasionally the transportation of grain from domestic ports to ports primarily in the Caribbean Basin.

Contracts and Customers

Marine transportation inland and coastal services are conducted under term or spot contracts for customers with whom the Company has traditionally had long-standing relationships. Typically, term contracts range from one to three years, some of which have renewal options. The majority of the marine transportation contracts with its customers are for terms of one year. Most have been customers of the Company’s marine transportation segment for many years and management anticipates continued relationships; however, there is no assurance that any individual contract will be renewed.

A term contract is an agreement with a specific customer to transport cargo from a designated origin to a designated destination at a set rate (affreightment) or at a daily rate (time charter). The rate may or may not include escalation provisions to recover changes in specific costs such as fuel. Time charters, which insulate the Company from revenue fluctuations caused by weather and navigational delays and temporary market declines, represented approximately 58% of the marine transportation’s inland revenues under term contracts during 2021, 66% of revenue under term contracts during 2020 and 62% of the revenue under term contracts during 2019. A spot contract is an agreement with a customer to move cargo from a specific origin to a designated destination for a rate negotiated at the time the cargo movement takes place. Spot contract rates are at the current “market” rate and are subject to market volatility. The Company typically maintains a higher mix of term contracts to spot contracts to provide the Company with a reasonably predictable

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revenue stream while maintaining spot market exposure to take advantage of new business opportunities and customers’ peak demands. During 2021, 2020, and 2019, approximately 65% of inland marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 35% were spot contract revenues. Coastal time charters represented approximately 85% of the marine transportation’s coastal revenues under term contracts in 2021 and 2019, and approximately 90% of coastal revenues under term contracts in 2020.

No single customer of the marine transportation segment accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s revenues in 2021, 2020, or 2019.

Properties

The principal offices of Kirby Inland Marine, Kirby Offshore Marine, Kirby Ocean Transport and Osprey are located in Houston, Texas, in two facilities under leases that expire in December 2025 and December 2027. Kirby Inland Marine’s operating locations are on the Mississippi River at Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, and Greenville, Mississippi, three locations in Houston, Texas, on or near the Houston Ship Channel, one in Miami, Florida, one in Gibson, Louisiana, one in Lake Charles, Louisiana, several properties in Westwego, Louisiana, one in Corpus Christi, Texas, and two in Orange, Texas. The New Orleans, Gibson, Westwego, Houston, and Orange operating facilities are owned by the Company, and the Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Lake Charles, Greenville, and Miami facilities are leased. Kirby Offshore Marine’s operating facilities are located in Staten Island, New York, and Seattle, Washington. All of Kirby Offshore Marine’s operating facilities are leased, including piers and wharf facilities and office and warehouse space. San Jac’s operating location is near the Houston Ship Channel and is owned by the Company.

Governmental Regulations

General. The Company’s marine transportation operations are subject to regulation by the USCG, federal laws, state laws, the laws of other countries when operating in their waters, and certain international conventions. The agencies establish safety requirements and standards and are authorized to investigate incidents.

Most of the Company’s tank barges are inspected by the USCG and carry certificates of inspection. The Company’s inland and coastal towing vessels and coastal dry-bulk barges are also subject to USCG regulations. The USCG has enacted safety regulations governing the inspection, standards, and safety management systems of towing vessels. The regulations also create many new requirements for design, construction, equipment, and operation of towing vessels. The USCG regulations supersede the jurisdiction of the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) and any state regulations on vessel design, construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, operation, equipping, personnel qualifications and manning. The regulations requiring towing vessels to obtain a certificate of inspection became effective for existing towing vessels on July 20, 2018. Other portions of the regulations are phased in following the July 20, 2018 effective date through July 19, 2022, by which time the Company expects to be in full compliance.

All of the Company’s coastal tugboats and coastal tank and dry-bulk barges are built to American Bureau of Shipping (“ABS”) classification standards and/or statutory requirements issued by the USCG, and are inspected periodically by ABS and/or the USCG to maintain the vessels in class and compliant with all U.S. statutory requirements, as applicable to the vessel. The crews employed by the Company aboard inland and coastal vessels, including captains, pilots, engineers, tankermen and ordinary seamen, are licensed by the USCG.

The Company is required by various governmental agencies to obtain licenses, certificates and permits for its vessels depending upon such factors as the cargo transported, the waters in which the vessels operate and other factors. The Company believes that its vessels have obtained and can maintain all required licenses, certificates and permits required by such governmental agencies for the foreseeable future. The Company’s failure to maintain these authorizations could adversely impact its operations.

The Company believes that additional security and environmental related regulations relating to contingency planning requirements could be imposed on the marine industry. Generally, the Company endorses the anticipated additional regulations and believes it is currently operating to standards at least equal to anticipated additional regulations.

Jones Act. The Jones Act is a federal cabotage law that restricts domestic marine transportation in the United States to vessels built and registered in the United States and manned, owned and operated by United States citizens. For a corporation to qualify as a United States citizen for the purpose of domestic trade, it has to be 75% owned and controlled by United States citizens within the meaning of the Jones Act. The Company monitors its citizenship status and meets the requirements of the Jones Act for its owned and operated vessels.

Compliance with United States ownership requirements of the Jones Act is important to the operations of the Company, and a violation of the Jones Act could have a material negative effect on the Company and its vessels’ ability to operate. The Company monitors the citizenship of its employees and stockholders and complies with United States build requirements.

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User Taxes. Federal legislation requires that inland marine transportation companies pay a user tax based on propulsion fuel used by vessels engaged in trade along the inland waterways that are maintained by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Such user taxes are designed to help defray the costs associated with replacing major components of the inland waterway system, such as locks and dams. A significant portion of the inland waterways on which the Company’s vessels operate is maintained by the Army Corps of Engineers.

The Company presently pays a federal fuel user tax of 29.1 cents per gallon consisting of a 0.1 cent per gallon leaking underground storage tank tax and 29 cents per gallon waterways user tax.

Security Requirements. The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 requires, among other things, submission to and approval by the USCG of vessel and waterfront facility security plans (“VSP” and “FSP”, respectively). The Company maintains approved VSP and FSP and is operating in compliance with the plans for all of its vessels and facilities that are subject to the requirements.

Environmental Regulations

The Company’s operations are affected by various regulations and legislation enacted for protection of the environment by the United States government, as well as many coastal and inland waterway states and international jurisdictions to the extent that the Company’s vessels transit in international waters. Government regulations require the Company to obtain permits, licenses and certificates for the operation of its vessels. Failure to maintain necessary permits or approvals could require the Company to incur costs or temporarily suspend operation of one or more of its vessels. Violations of these laws may result in civil and criminal penalties, fines, or other sanctions.

Water Pollution Regulations. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, as amended by the Clean Water Act of 1977 (“Clean Water Act”), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1981 (“CERCLA”) and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”) impose strict prohibitions against the discharge of oil and its derivatives or hazardous substances into the navigable waters of the United States. These acts impose civil and criminal penalties for any prohibited discharges and impose substantial strict liability for cleanup of these discharges and any associated damages. Certain states also have water pollution laws that prohibit discharges into waters that traverse the state or adjoin the state, and impose civil and criminal penalties and liabilities similar in nature to those imposed under federal laws.

The OPA and various state laws of similar intent substantially increased over historic levels the statutory liability of owners and operators of vessels for oil spills, both in terms of limit of liability and scope of damages.

The Company manages its exposure to losses from potential discharges of pollutants through the use of well-maintained and equipped vessels, through safety, training and environmental programs, and through the Company’s insurance program. There can be no assurance, however, that any new regulations or requirements or any discharge of pollutants by the Company will not have an adverse effect on the Company.

Clean Water Act. The Clean Water Act establishes the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (“NPDES”) permitting program which regulates discharges into navigable waters of the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) regulates the discharge of ballast water and other substances in United States waters under the Clean Water Act. Pursuant to the NPDES program, effective February 6, 2009, the EPA issued regulations requiring vessels 79 feet in length or longer to comply with a Vessel General Permit authorizing ballast water discharges and other discharges incidental to the operation of the vessels. The EPA regulations also imposed technology and water quality based effluent limits for certain types of discharges and established specific inspection, monitoring, recordkeeping and reporting requirements for vessels to ensure effluent limitations are met. The Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (“VIDA”), signed into law on December 4, 2018, established a new framework for the regulation of vessel incidental discharges under the Clean Water Act. VIDA requires the EPA to develop national performance standards for those discharges within two years of enactment and requires the USCG to develop implementation, compliance, and enforcement regulations within two years of the EPA’s promulgation of standards. Under VIDA, all provisions of the Vessel General Permit which became effective December 19, 2013, remain in force and effect until the USCG regulations are finalized. The Company maintains Vessel General Permits and has established recordkeeping and reporting procedures in compliance with the EPA’s interim requirements.

The USCG adopted regulations on ballast water management treatment systems establishing a standard for the allowable concentration of living organisms in certain vessel ballast water discharged in waters of the United States under the National Invasive Species Act. The regulations include requirements for the installation of engineering equipment to treat ballast water by establishing an approval process for ballast water management systems (“BWMS”). The BWMS implementation was suspended until December 2016 at which time the USCG approved manufacturers’ systems that met the regulatory discharge standard equivalent to the International Maritime Organization’s D-2 standard. The phase-in schedule for those existing vessels requiring a system to install a BWMS is dependent on vessel build date, ballast water capacity, and drydock schedule. Compliance with the ballast water treatment regulations requires the installation of equipment on some of the Company’s vessels to treat ballast water before it is discharged. The installation

12


 

of BWMS equipment will require significant capital expenditures at the next scheduled drydocking to complete the installation of the approved system on those existing vessels that require a system in order to comply with the BWMS regulations.

Financial Responsibility Requirement. Commencing with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, as amended, vessels over 300 gross tons operating in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States have been required to maintain evidence of financial ability to satisfy statutory liabilities for oil and hazardous substance water pollution. This evidence is in the form of a Certificate of Financial Responsibility (“COFR”) issued by the USCG. The majority of the Company’s tank barges are subject to this COFR requirement, and the Company has fully complied with this requirement since its inception. The Company does not foresee any current or future difficulty in maintaining the COFR certificates under current rules.

Clean Air Regulations. The Federal Clean Air Act of 1979 (“CAA”) requires states to draft State Implementation Plans (“SIPs”) under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards designed to reduce atmospheric pollution for six common air pollutants to levels mandated by this act. The EPA designates areas in the United States as meeting or not meeting the standards. Several SIPs implement the regulation of barge loading and discharging emissions at waterfront facilities as a measure to meet the CAA standard. The implementation of these regulations requires a reduction of hydrocarbon emissions released into the atmosphere during the loading of most petroleum products and the degassing and cleaning of barges for maintenance or change of cargo. These regulations require vessel operators that operate in states with areas of nonattainment of air quality standards under the CAA to install vapor control equipment on their barges. The Company expects that future emission regulations will be developed and will apply this same technology to many chemicals that are handled by barge. Most of the Company’s barges engaged in the transportation of petrochemicals, chemicals and refined petroleum products are already equipped with vapor control systems. Although a risk exists that new regulations could require significant capital expenditures by the Company and otherwise increase the Company’s costs, the Company believes that, based upon the regulations that have been proposed thus far, no material capital expenditures beyond those currently contemplated by the Company and no material increase in costs are likely to be required.

Contingency Plan Requirement. The OPA and several state statutes of similar intent require the majority of the vessels and terminals operated by the Company to maintain approved oil spill contingency plans as a condition of operation. The Company has approved plans that comply with these requirements. The OPA also requires development of regulations for hazardous substance spill contingency plans. The USCG has not yet promulgated these regulations; however, the Company anticipates that they will not be more difficult to comply with than the oil spill plans.

Occupational Health Regulations. The Company’s inspected vessel operations are primarily regulated by the USCG for occupational health standards. Uninspected vessel operations and the Company’s shore-based personnel are subject to OSHA regulations. The Company believes that it is in compliance with the provisions of the regulations that have been adopted and does not believe that the adoption of any further regulations will impose additional material requirements on the Company. There can be no assurance, however, that claims will not be made against the Company for work related illness or injury, or that the further adoption of health regulations will not adversely affect the Company.

Insurance. The Company’s marine transportation operations are subject to the hazards associated with operating vessels carrying large volumes of bulk cargo in a marine environment. These hazards include the risk of loss of or damage to the Company’s vessels, damage to third parties as a result of collision, fire or explosion, adverse weather conditions, loss or contamination of cargo, personal injury of employees and third parties, and pollution and other environmental damages. The Company maintains hull, liability, general liability, workers compensation and pollution liability insurance coverage against these hazards. For shipyard operations, the Company has ship repairer’s liability and builder’s risk insurance. The Company uses a Texas domiciled wholly owned insurance subsidiary, Adaptive KRM, LLC, to provide cost effective risk transfer options to insure certain exposures of the Company and certain of its subsidiaries in its marine transportation and distribution and services segments. The Company also maintains insurance in the commercial insurance market to address liabilities arising in connection with its distribution and services segment.

Environmental Protection. The Company utilizes several programs to further its commitment to environmental responsibility in its operations. Environmental compliance audits, performed with internal and external resources, are performed regularly on the Company's operations. Additionally, the Company employs third party expertise to conduct safety performance, safety management system, and environmental audits on its barge cleaning and shipyard vendors. The Company participates in the American Waterways Operators Responsible Carrier program, which drives continuous improvement towards reducing the barge industry’s impact on the environment. It is also a member of the Blue Sky Maritime Coalition and other organizations focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Safety. The Company manages its exposure to the hazards associated with its business through safety, training and preventive maintenance efforts. The Company emphasizes its safety commitment through programs oriented toward extensive monitoring of safety performance for the purpose of identifying trends and initiating corrective action, and for continuously improving employee safety behavior and performance.

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Training. The Company believes that among the major elements of a successful and productive work force are effective training programs. The Company also believes that training in the proper performance of a job enhances both the safety and quality of the service provided. New technology, regulatory compliance, personnel safety, quality and environmental concerns create additional demands for training. Refer to Human Capital below for further discussion regarding training programs the Company has developed and instituted.

Quality. Kirby Inland Marine has made a substantial commitment to the implementation, maintenance, and improvement of quality assurance systems. Kirby Offshore Marine is certified under ABS ISM standards. These Quality Assurance Systems and certification have enabled both shore and vessel personnel to effectively manage the changes which occur in the working environment, as well as enhancing the Company’s safety and environmental performance.

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICES

The Company, through its wholly owned subsidiary Kirby Distribution & Services, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries Kirby Engine Systems LLC, (“Kirby Engine Systems”), Stewart & Stevenson LLC (“S&S”), United Holdings LLC (“United”), and Diesel Dash LLC and through Kirby Engine Systems’ wholly owned subsidiaries Marine Systems, Inc. (“Marine Systems”) and Engine Systems, Inc. (“Engine Systems”), serves two markets, commercial and industrial, and oil and gas. The Company sells genuine replacement parts, provides service mechanics to overhaul and repair engines, transmissions, reduction gears and related oilfield service equipment, rebuilds component parts or entire diesel engines, transmissions and reduction gears, electrical motors, drives, and controls, specialized electrical distribution and control systems, energy storage battery systems, and related equipment used in oilfield services, marine, power generation, on-highway, and other commercial and industrial applications. Customers are served through a network of 62 branch locations across 17 states and Colombia, South America, as well as a proprietary on-line marketplace, www.dieseldash.com. The Company manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, for North American as well as for international oilfield service companies, and oil and gas operator and producer markets. The Company also sells engines, transmissions, power generation systems, and rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, high capacity lift trucks, and refrigeration trailers for use in a variety of commercial and industrial applications.

For the commercial and industrial market, the Company sells Original Equipment Manufacturers (“OEM”) replacement parts and new diesel engines, provides service mechanics and maintains facilities to overhaul and repair diesel engines and ancillary products for marine and on-highway transportation companies, and industrial companies. The Company provides engineering and field services, OEM replacement parts and safety-related products to power generation operators and to the nuclear industry, manufactures engine generator and pump packages for power generation operators and municipalities, offers power generation systems customized for specific commercial and industrial applications, and rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, high capacity lift trucks, and refrigeration trailers for use in a variety of industrial markets.

For the oil and gas market, the Company sells OEM replacement parts, sells and services diesel engines, pumps and transmissions, manufactures and remanufactures pressure pumping units, manufactures cementing and pumping equipment, as well as coil tubing and well intervention equipment, electric power generation equipment, specialized electrical distribution and control equipment, and high capacity energy storage/battery systems. Customers include oilfield service companies, and oil and gas operators and producers.

No single customer of the distribution and services segment accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s revenues in 2021, 2020, or 2019. The distribution and services segment also provides service to the Company’s marine transportation segment, which accounted for approximately 2% of the distribution and services segment’s 2021 revenues, 3% of the segment’s 2020 revenue, and 2% of the segment's 2019 revenues. Such revenues are eliminated in consolidation and not included in the table below.

The following table sets forth the revenues for the distribution and services segment (dollars in thousands):

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

%

 

 

2020

 

 

%

 

 

2019

 

 

%

 

Service and parts

 

$

813,875

 

 

 

88

%

 

$

711,051

 

 

 

93

%

 

$

939,246

 

 

 

75

%

Manufacturing

 

 

109,867

 

 

 

12

 

 

 

56,092

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

312,071

 

 

 

25

 

 

 

$

923,742

 

 

 

100

%

 

$

767,143

 

 

 

100

%

 

$

1,251,317

 

 

 

100

%

 

Commercial and Industrial Operations

The Company serves the marine, on-highway, power generation, and other commercial and industrial markets primarily in the United States. The commercial and industrial operations represented approximately 63% of the segment’s 2021 revenues.

The Company is engaged in the overhaul and repair of medium-speed and high-speed marine diesel engines and reduction gears, line boring, block welding services and related parts sales for customers in the marine industry. Medium-speed diesel engines have an engine speed of 400 to 1,000 revolutions per minute (“RPM”) with a horsepower range of 800 to 32,000. High-speed diesel engines have an engine speed of over 1,000 RPM and a horsepower range of 50 to 8,375. The Company services medium-speed and high-speed

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diesel engines utilized in the inland and offshore barge industries. It also services marine equipment and offshore drilling equipment used in the offshore petroleum exploration and oilfield service industry, marine equipment used in the offshore commercial fishing industry, harbor docking vessels, commercial ferries, vessels owned by the United States government and large pleasure crafts.

The Company has marine repair operations throughout the United States providing in-house and in-field repair capabilities and related parts sales. The Company’s emphasis is on service to its customers, and it sends its crews from any of its locations to service customers’ equipment anywhere in the world. The medium-speed operations are located in Houma, Louisiana, Houston, Texas, Chesapeake, Virginia, Paducah, Kentucky, Seattle, Washington, and Tampa, Florida, serving as the authorized distributor for EMD Power Products (“EMD”) throughout the United States. The Company is also a distributor and representative for certain Alfa Laval products in the Midwest and on the East Coast, Gulf Coast, and West Coast. All of the marine locations are authorized distributors for Falk Corporation reduction gears and Oil States Industries, Inc. clutches. The Chesapeake, Virginia operation concentrates on East Coast inland and offshore dry-bulk, tank barge and harbor docking operators, and the United States government. The Houma, Louisiana operation concentrates on the inland and offshore barge and oilfield services industries. The Tampa, Florida operation concentrates on Gulf of Mexico offshore dry-bulk, tank barge and harbor docking operators. The Paducah, Kentucky operation concentrates on the inland river towboat and barge operators and the Great Lakes carriers. The Seattle, Washington operation concentrates on the offshore commercial fishing industry, the offshore barge industry, the United States government, and other customers in Alaska, Hawaii and the Pacific Rim.

The high-speed marine operations are located in Houston, Texas, Houma, Baton Rouge, Belle Chasse and New Iberia, Louisiana, Paducah, Kentucky, Mobile, Alabama, Lodi and Thorofare, New Jersey, and 10 locations in Florida. The Company serves as a factory-authorized marine dealer for Caterpillar diesel engines in multiple states. The Company also operates factory-authorized full service marine distributorships/dealerships for Cummins, Detroit Diesel, John Deere, MTU, and Volvo Penta, and Kohler diesel engines, as well as Falk, Lufkin and Twin Disc marine gears. High-speed diesel engines provide the main propulsion for a significant amount of the United States flagged commercial vessels and large pleasure craft vessels, other marine applications, including engines for power generators and barge pumps.

The Company distributes, sells parts for and services diesel engines and transmissions for on-highway use and provides in-house and in-field service capabilities. The Company is the largest on-highway distributor for Allison Transmission and Detroit Diesel/Daimler Truck North America, providing parts, service and warranty on engines, transmissions and related equipment in Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, and the country of Colombia. The Company also provides similar service for off-highway use and additionally has distributor rights for Deutz and Isuzu diesel engines. Off-highway applications are primarily surface and underground mining equipment, including loaders, crawlers, crushers, power screens, pumps, cranes, generators, and haul trucks, as well as equipment rental.

The Company is engaged in the overhaul and repair of diesel engines and generators, and related parts sales for power generation customers. The Company is also engaged in the sale and distribution of diesel engine parts, engine modifications, generator modifications, controls, governors and diesel generator packages to the nuclear industry. The Company services users of diesel engines that provide emergency standby, peak and base load power generation. The Company also sells power generation systems that are customized for specific applications and the rental of power generation systems.

The Company has power generation operations throughout the United States providing in-house and in-field repair capabilities and products for power generation applications. Through its Rocky Mount, North Carolina operation, the Company serves as the exclusive worldwide distributor of EMD products to the nuclear industry, the worldwide distributor for Woodward, Inc. products to the nuclear industry, the worldwide distributor of Cooper Machinery Services (“Cooper”) products to the nuclear industry, and owns the assets and technology necessary to support the Nordberg medium-speed diesel engines used in nuclear applications. In addition, the Rocky Mount operation is an exclusive distributor for Norlake Manufacturing Company transformer products to the nuclear industry, an exclusive distributor of Hannon Company generator and motor products to the nuclear industry, and a non-exclusive distributor of analog Weschler Instruments metering products and an exclusive distributor of digital Weschler metering products to the nuclear industry. The Company is also a non-exclusive distributor of Ingersoll Rand air start equipment to the nuclear industry worldwide.

The Company sells pre-packaged and fabricated power generation systems for emergency, standby and auxiliary power for commercial and industrial applications. The Company also offers rental generator systems from 50 to 2,000 kilowatts of power to a broad range of customers. The Company also is engaged in the rental of industrial compressors, high capacity lift trucks, and refrigeration trailers. In addition, the Company provides accessory products such as cables, hoses, fuel cells, air dryers, air compressor boosters and ground heaters. Lastly, the Company is a dealer for Thermo King refrigeration systems for trucks, railroad cars and other land transportation markets in Texas and Colorado.

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Commercial and Industrial Customers

The results of the distribution and services industry are largely tied to the industries it serves and, therefore, are influenced by the cycles of such industries. The Company’s major marine customers include inland and offshore barge operators, oilfield service companies, offshore fishing companies, other marine transportation entities, the United States government and large pleasure crafts. Since the marine business is linked to the relative health of the inland towboat, offshore and coastal tugboat, harbor docking tugboat, offshore oilfield service, oil and gas drilling, offshore commercial fishing industries, Great Lakes ore vessels, dredging vessels, coastal ferries, United States government vessels and the pleasure craft industry, there is no assurance that its present gross revenues can be maintained in the future.

The Company’s on-highway customers are long-haul and short-haul trucking companies, commercial and industrial companies with truck fleets, buses owned by municipalities and private companies. Off-highway companies include surface and underground mining operations with a large variety of equipment.

The Company’s power generation customers are domestic utilities and the worldwide nuclear power industry, municipalities, universities, medical facilities, data centers, petrochemical plants, manufacturing facilities, shopping malls, office complexes, residential and other industrial users.

The Company’s rental customers are primarily commercial and industrial companies, and residential customers with short-term rental requirements.

Commercial and Industrial Competitive Conditions

The Company’s primary marine competitors are independent distribution and services companies and other factory-authorized distributors, authorized service centers and authorized marine dealers. Certain operators of diesel powered marine equipment also elect to maintain in-house service capabilities. While price is a major determinant in the competitive process, reputation, consistent quality, expeditious service, experienced personnel, access to parts inventories and market presence are also significant factors. A substantial portion of the Company’s business is obtained by competitive bids. However, the Company has entered into service agreements with certain operators of diesel powered marine equipment, providing such operators with one source of support and service for all of their requirements at pre-negotiated prices.

The Company is one of a limited number of authorized resellers of EMD, Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, John Deere, MTU and Volvo Penta parts. The Company is also the marine distributor for Falk, Lufkin and Twin Disc reduction gears throughout the United States.

The Company’s primary power generation competitors are other independent diesel service companies and manufacturers. While price is a major determinant in the competitive process, reputation, consistent quality, expeditious service, experienced personnel, access to parts inventories and market presence are also significant factors. A substantial portion of the Company’s business is obtained by competitive bids.

As noted above, the Company is the exclusive worldwide distributor of EMD, Cooper, Woodward, Nordberg, Norlake and Hannon parts for the nuclear industry, and non-exclusive distributor of Weschler parts and Ingersoll Rand air start equipment for the nuclear industry. Specific regulations relating to equipment used in nuclear power generation require extensive testing and certification of replacement parts. OEM parts need to be properly tested and certified for nuclear applications.

Oil and Gas Operations

The Company is engaged in the distribution and service of high-speed diesel engines, pumps and transmissions, and the manufacture and remanufacture of oilfield service equipment. The oil and gas operations represented approximately 37% of the segment’s 2021 revenues. The Company offers custom fabricated oilfield service equipment that is fully tested and field ready. The Company manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, nitrogen pumping units, cementers, hydration equipment, mud pumps and blenders, coil tubing, well intervention equipment, electric power generation equipment, specialized electrical distribution and control equipment, and high capacity energy storage/battery systems. The Company sells OEM replacement parts, and sells and services diesel engines, electric drives, motors and controls, pumps and transmissions, and offers in-house and in-field service capabilities. The Company is the largest off-highway distributor for Allison Transmission and a major distributor for MTU in North America.

The Company’s manufacturing and remanufacturing facilities and service facilities are based in Houston, Texas and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, both key oil and gas producing regions.

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Oil and Gas Customers

The Company’s major oil and gas customers include large and mid-cap oilfield service providers, oil and gas operators and producers. The Company has long standing relationships with most of its customers. Since the oil and gas business is linked to the oilfield services industry, and oil and gas operators and producers, there is no assurance that its present gross revenues can be maintained in the future. The results of the Company’s oil and gas distribution and services operations are largely tied to the industries it serves and, therefore, are influenced by the cycles of such industries.

Oil and Gas Competitive Conditions

The Company’s primary competitors are other oilfield equipment manufacturers and remanufacturers, and equipment service companies. While price is a major determinant in the competitive process, equipment availability, reputation, consistent quality, expeditious service, experienced personnel, access to parts inventories and market presence are also significant factors. A substantial portion of the Company’s business is obtained by competitive bids.

Properties

The principal office of the distribution and services segment is located in Houston, Texas. There are 62 active facilities in the distribution and services segment, of which 25 facilities are owned and 37 facilities are leased.

The oil and gas operation’s principal manufacturing facilities are located in Houston and Austin, Texas and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with one location leased and the other two facilities owned by the Company. The oil and gas focused operations have 17 parts and service facilities, with one in Arkansas, two in Colorado, three in Louisiana, one in New Mexico, one in Oklahoma, eight in Texas and one in Wyoming, with many of these facilities shared with the commercial and industrial operations.

The commercial and industrial businesses operate 42 parts and service facilities, with one facility in Alabama, one in Connecticut, one in Colorado, 11 in Florida, one in Kentucky, two in Louisiana, one in Massachusetts, one in Oklahoma, three in New Jersey, one in New York, one in North Carolina, 11 in Texas, one in Virginia, one in Washington and five facilities located in Colombia, South America.

Human Capital

Employment. The Company has approximately 5,125 employees, the large majority of whom are in the United States. The large majority of non-vessel employees work full-time. Vessel employees work varying schedules according to their assignments. The Company has approximately 130 general corporate employees. The Company supports its employees by providing competitive pay and benefits, training, and a respectful and inclusive culture.

The Company’s marine transportation segment has approximately 3,160 employees, of which approximately 2,485 are vessel crew members. None of the segment’s inland operations are subject to collective bargaining agreements. The segment’s coastal operations include approximately 500 vessel employees, some of which are subject to collective bargaining agreements in certain geographic areas. Approximately 230 Kirby Offshore Marine vessel crew members employed in the Atlantic Division are subject to a collective bargaining agreement with the Richmond Terrace Bargaining Unit in effect through August 31, 2022. In addition, approximately 100 vessel crew members of Penn Maritime Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Kirby Offshore Marine, are represented by the Seafarers International Union under a collective bargaining agreement in effect through April 30, 2022.

The Company’s distribution and services segment has approximately 1,835 employees. None of the United Holdings and Kirby Engine Systems operations are subject to collective bargaining agreements. Approximately 55 S&S employees in New Jersey are subject to a collective bargaining agreement with the Local 15C, International Union of Operating Engineers, AFL-CIO that expires in October 2023. The remaining S&S employees are not subject to collective bargaining agreements.

Training and Development. The Company strives to provide its employees with a rewarding work environment, including the opportunity for success and an opportunity for personal and professional development. The development of its people is a key factor in the Company's employee retention and satisfaction. Its technical and skill training has always been a differentiator and has facilitated the recruitment of new trainees.

For the marine business, the Company’s training facility includes state-of-the-art equipment and instruction aids, including a full bridge wheelhouse simulator, a working towboat, two tank barges, and a tank barge simulator for tankermen training. During 2021, approximately 950 certificates were issued for the completion of courses at the training facility, of which approximately 550 were USCG approved classes and the balance were employee development and Company required classes, including leadership, communication, and navigation courses. The Company uses the Seaman’s Church Institute as an additional training resource for its wheelhouse

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crewmembers. The marine segment provides a clear career progression for vessel personnel from entry level deckhand to captain and regularly reviews promotions from one level to another.

In distribution and services, Company facilitates training courses via online courses and instructor-led classes that cover a range of skill related topics generator knowledge, introduction to hydraulic systems, introduction to electrical diagrams, introduction to transformers, and Electrical Generation Systems Association journeyman study, as well as numerous courses led by its OEM partners. The distribution and services segment has multiple career progressions within its numerous job groups.

The Company's leadership and managerial training includes in-person and an on-line training curriculum that is available to both supervisory employees and those employees that aspire to move into such roles in the future. It includes a series of classes focused on management essentials which provide in-depth education in specific subjects such as leadership, strategic thinking, coaching and people development, decision making, problem solving, and communication.

In addition, the Company facilitates many training courses that cover a range of topics that enhance specific skill sets, increase productivity, and educate employees about safety and team morale across both business segments. Training classes include environmental, health, and safety classes, compliance, leadership, and general business skills related courses. Environmental, health, and safety topics include defensive and distracted driving, first aid basic and medical emergencies, global safety principles, oil management, and hazardous substances training. Compliance topics include anti-corruption training, cybersecurity awareness, business ethics, compliance, and promoting diversity. Skill related topics include business writing, risk-based thinking, initiating and planning a project, and transitioning into a project management role.

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion. The Company has a diversity committee whose purpose is to continuously enhance workplace diversity. In 2019 and 2020, committee initiatives included training to help increase awareness and drive inclusive behaviors, identifying areas for improvement and providing oversight for hiring, promotions, and mentoring. In 2021, the Company instituted an organization-wide training initiative that expanded the understanding and awareness of diversity and inclusion. Over 5,000 employees successfully completed this training.

Succession Planning. Succession planning is a key responsibility of the CEO and Chief Human Resources Officer and is a critical annual process for the Company's senior management and its Board. Senior management reviews their succession plans regularly throughout the year and on an annual basis provides the Board an in-depth review of the top three levels of management. This process looks at qualifications, time in role, readiness to advance, diversity, and required development. The Board engages with many of these individuals through presentations on a variety of projects and subjects. The development initiatives undertaken with those in the succession plan may comprise of 360-degree feedback, high level post graduate work, targeted development work around strengthening a needed competency, or additional industry exposure.

Culture, Engagement, and Social Responsibility. The Company recognizes the importance of employee engagement and has implemented a regular process of surveying its employees to obtain their feedback on both what is working well and areas of improvement. One of the main take-aways from the 2021 survey was 90% of employees surveyed agree that Kirby is committed to Employee Safety, this was a 6% increase over the last survey. 85% of our employees believe our culture is responsible for high retention and low turnover. In addition, the survey reflected that employees are engaged and have pride in Kirby and they provided positive feedback on their relationships with their managers. In 2019 employees indicated they wanted more communication and this feedback led to specific initiatives including an increased use of town halls, both in person and virtual. Additionally, the responses to the 2019 survey resulted in a common set of values where a cross functional team was assembled to develop these values into what the Company now calls The Kirby Way. The Kirby Way is an amalgamation of Kirby’s Vision, Mission, Core Values, and Behavior Expectations. These are principles that have been communicated and are owned throughout the organization.

The Company provides its employees with a rewarding work environment, which includes access to resources for personal and professional development. The Company often participates in community organizations, service projects and matches employee charitable contributions. Through the Kirby Disaster Relief Fund, the Company supports employees in need following natural disasters and other qualified hardships. The Company provides employees with tuition reimbursement and college scholarships for to the children of employees. In addition to standard health and welfare benefits the Company offers wellness incentives and initiatives that encourages employees to receive an annual wellness checkup.

COVID-19 Pandemic Response. The Company responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in a manner consistent with its Core Values of Safety and People. The Company's response involved real time decision making needed to continue operations with the least amount of disruption for its customers. The Company implemented measures which included the use of protective equipment, health checks, temperature checks, travel restrictions, protocols for employees whose duties could not be accomplished through remote working arrangements, and implementing technology required for those that could work remotely.

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Of the Company's 5,125 employees, approximately 1,000 could perform their work remotely. The Company implemented changes needed to cover people for certain additional medical costs that might occur and implemented a virtual telehealth option for those needing immediate care and medical advice. In addition, the Company implemented testing provisions, cleaning guidelines, social distancing, density reduction, and mask protocols. The Company modified scheduling to reduce travel and hotel exposure where practical.

Information about the Company’s Executive Officers

The executive officers of the Company are as follows:

 

Name

 

Age

 

Positions and Offices

David W. Grzebinski

 

60

 

President and Chief Executive Officer

Raj Kumar

 

49

 

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

William G. Harvey

 

64

 

Executive Vice President

Christian G. O’Neil

 

49

 

President – Kirby Inland Marine, Kirby Offshore Marine, and San Jac Marine, LLC

Joseph H. Reniers

 

47

 

President – Kirby Distribution & Services, Inc.

Dorman L. Strahan

 

65

 

President – Kirby Engine Systems

Kim B. Clarke

 

66

 

Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer

Ronald A. Dragg

 

58

 

Vice President, Controller and Assistant Secretary

Eric S. Holcomb

 

47

 

Vice President – Investor Relations

Amy D. Husted

 

53

 

Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary

Scott P. Miller

 

43

 

Vice President and Chief Information Officer

Kurt A. Niemietz

 

49

 

Vice President and Treasurer

William M. Woodruff

 

61

 

Vice President – Public and Governmental Affairs

 

No family relationship exists among the executive officers or among the executive officers and the directors. Officers are elected to hold office until the annual meeting of directors, which immediately follows the annual meeting of stockholders, or until their respective successors are elected and have qualified.

David W. Grzebinski is a Chartered Financial Analyst and holds a Master of Business Administration degree from Tulane University and a degree in chemical engineering from the University of South Florida. He has served as President and Chief Executive Officer since April 2014. He served as President and Chief Operating Officer from January 2014 to April 2014 and as Chief Financial Officer from March 2010 to April 2014. He served as Chairman of Kirby Offshore Marine from February 2012 to April 2013 and served as Executive Vice President from March 2010 to January 2014. Prior to joining the Company in February 2010, he served in various operational and financial positions since 1988 with FMC Technologies Inc. (“FMC”), including Controller, Energy Services, Treasurer, and Director of Global SAP and Industry Relations. Prior to joining FMC, he was employed by Dow Chemical Company in manufacturing, engineering and financial roles.

Raj Kumar is a member of CPA Australia and holds a Master of Business Administration degree from Columbia University in New York City and a Bachelor of Business in Accounting from Deakin University in Australia. He has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since November 2021. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Kumar served as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Dril-Quip, Inc. from 2020 to 2021, Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer from 2019 to 2020, and Vice President and Treasurer from 2017 to 2019. Prior to joining Dril-Quip, he served as Vice President Finance at Franks International from 2015 to 2017. Prior to that, he served as a segment controller at LyondellBasell and in Division CFO, treasury, strategic planning and corporate development positions at FMC Technologies and Dell Technologies.

William G. Harvey is a Chartered Financial Analyst and holds a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Toronto and a degree in mechanical engineering from Queens University. He has served as Executive Vice President since November 2021. He served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from February 2018 to November 2021 and as Executive Vice President – Finance from January 2018 to February 2018. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Harvey served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Walter Energy, Inc. from 2012 to 2017, Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Resolute Forest Products Inc. (“Resolute”) from 2008 to 2011, and as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Bowater Inc., a predecessor company of Resolute, from 2004 to 2008.

Christian G. O’Neil holds a Master of Business Administration degree from Rice University, a doctorate of jurisprudence from Tulane University and a bachelor of arts degree from Southern Methodist University. He has served as President of Kirby Inland Marine and Kirby Offshore Marine since January 2018 and as President of San Jac Marine, LLC since October 2018. He served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Kirby Inland Marine and Kirby Offshore Marine from May 2016 to January 2018. He also served as Executive Vice President – Commercial Operations of Kirby Inland Marine and Kirby Offshore Marine from April 2014 to May 2016, Vice President – Human Resources of the Company from May 2012 to April 2014, Vice President – Sales for Kirby Inland

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Marine from 2009 to 2012 and President of Osprey from 2006 through 2008. He has also served in various sales and business development roles at the Company and Osprey. Prior to joining the Company, he served as Sales Manager and Fleet Manager at Hollywood Marine, Inc. (“Hollywood Marine”) after joining Hollywood Marine in 1997 which was subsequently merged into the predecessor of Kirby Inland Marine.

Joseph H. Reniers holds a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and a degree in mechanical engineering from the United States Naval Academy. He has served the Company as President – Kirby Distribution & Services, Inc. since September 2017. He served as Executive Vice President – Diesel Engine Services and Supply Chain from May 2016 to September 2017, Senior Vice President – Diesel Engine Services and Marine Facility Operations from February 2015 to May 2016, Vice President – Strategy and Operational Service from April 2014 to February 2015, Vice President – Supply Chain from April 2012 to April 2014 and Vice President – Human Resources from March 2010 to April 2012. Prior to joining the Company, he was a management consultant with McKinsey & Company serving a wide variety of industrial clients. Prior to joining McKinsey, he served as a nuclear power officer in the Navy.

Dorman L. Strahan attended Nicholls State University and has served the Company as President of Kirby Engine Systems since May 1999, President of Marine Systems since 1986 and President of Engine Systems since 1996. After joining the Company in 1982 in connection with the acquisition of Marine Systems, he served as Vice President of Marine Systems until 1985.

Kim B. Clarke holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Houston. She has served as Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer since October 2017. She served as Vice President – Human Resources from December 2016 to October 2017. Prior to joining the Company, she served in senior leadership roles in human resources, safety, information technology and business development as Senior Vice President and Chief Administration Officer for Key Energy Services, Inc. from 2004 to March 2016.

Ronald A. Dragg is a Certified Public Accountant and holds a Master of Science in Accountancy degree from the University of Houston and a degree in finance from Texas A&M University. He has served the Company as Vice President, Controller and Assistant Secretary since April 2014. He also served as Vice President and Controller from January 2007 to April 2014, as Controller from November 2002 to January 2007, Controller – Financial Reporting from January 1999 to October 2002, and Assistant Controller – Financial Reporting from October 1996 to December 1998. Prior to joining the Company, he was employed by Baker Hughes Incorporated.

Eric S. Holcomb is a Certified Public Accountant and holds a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in accounting from Southern Methodist University. He has served the Company as Vice President – Investor Relations since December 2017. Prior to joining the Company, he was employed by Baker Hughes Incorporated from 2003 to December 2017 serving in various roles including Investor Relations Director, Finance Director for North America Land, Finance Director for North America Offshore and Finance Director for Canada.

Amy D. Husted holds a doctorate of jurisprudence from South Texas College of Law and a Bachelor of Science degree in political science from the University of Houston. She has served the Company as Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since April 2019. She also served as Vice President and General Counsel from January 2017 to April 2019, Vice President – Legal from January 2008 to January 2017 and Corporate Counsel from November 1999 through December 2007. Prior to joining the Company, she served as Corporate Counsel of Hollywood Marine from 1996 to 1999 after joining Hollywood Marine in 1994.

Scott P. Miller holds a Bachelor of Science in Management of Information Systems from Louisiana State University and a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Houston. He has served as Vice President and Chief Information Officer since April 2019. Prior to joining the Company, he was employed by Key Energy Services, Inc. from May 2006 to March 2019, serving in various senior leadership roles including Managing Director of Strategy, Vice President and Chief Information Officer from March 2013 to December 2015 and as Senior Vice President, Operations Services and Chief Administrative Officer from January 2016 to March 2019.

Kurt A. Niemietz holds a Master of Business Administration degree from St. Mary’s University and a degree in accounting from the University of Texas at San Antonio. He has served as Vice President and Treasurer since April 2019. Prior to joining the Company, he was employed by Pacific Drilling from 2013 to 2019, serving in various roles of increasing responsibility, including Treasurer from 2017 to 2019, and in various financial positions with FMC, from 2006 to 2013. Prior to joining FMC, he was employed by Austin, Calvert & Flavin as a buy-side equity analyst.

William M. Woodruff holds a doctorate of jurisprudence from the University of Houston Law Center and a bachelor of science degree from Texas A&M University. He has served as Vice President – Public and Governmental Affairs since October 2017. He served as Director – Public & Government Affairs from 2014 to October 2017 after joining the Company as Director – Government Affairs in 2004. Prior to joining the Company, he was a maritime lawyer in private practice and Vice President and General Counsel of Coastal Towing, Inc.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

In addition to the other information set forth elsewhere in this annual report, the following risk factors should be considered carefully when evaluating the Company, as its businesses, results of operations, or financial condition could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The following discussion does not attempt to cover factors, such as trends in the United States and global economies or the level of interest rates, among others, that are likely to affect most businesses.

Marine Transportation Segment Risk Factors

The Inland Waterway infrastructure is aging and may result in increased costs and disruptions to the Company’s marine transportation segment. Maintenance of the United States inland waterway system is vital to the Company’s operations. The system is composed of over 12,000 miles of commercially navigable waterway, supported by over 240 locks and dams designed to provide flood control, maintain pool levels of water in certain areas of the country and facilitate navigation on the inland river system. The United States inland waterway infrastructure is aging, with more than half of the locks over 50 years old. As a result, due to the age of the locks, scheduled and unscheduled maintenance outages may be more frequent in nature, resulting in delays and additional operating expenses. Currently, 35% of the cost of new construction and major rehabilitation of locks and dams is paid by marine transportation companies through a 29 cent per gallon diesel fuel tax and the remaining 65% of waterway infrastructure and improvement is paid from general federal tax revenues. Failure of the federal government to adequately fund infrastructure maintenance and improvements in the future would have a negative impact on the Company’s ability to deliver products for its customers on a timely basis. In addition, any additional user taxes that may be imposed in the future to fund infrastructure improvements would increase the Company’s operating expenses.

The Company could be adversely impacted by a marine accident or spill event. A marine accident or spill event could close a portion of the inland waterway system or a coastal area of the United States for an extended period of time. Although statistically marine transportation is the safest means of surface transportation of bulk commodities, accidents do occur, both involving Company equipment and equipment owned by other marine operators.

The Company transports a wide variety of petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, and coastwise along all three United States coasts. The Company manages its exposure to losses from potential unauthorized discharges of pollutants through the use of well-maintained and equipped tank barges and towing vessels, through safety, training and environmental programs, and through the Company’s insurance program, but a discharge of pollutants by the Company could have an adverse effect on the Company. Risks may arise for which the Company may not be insured. Claims covered by insurance are subject to deductibles, the aggregate amount of which could be material, and certain policies impose limitations on coverage. Existing insurance coverage may not be able to be renewed at commercially reasonable rates or coverage capacity for certain risks may not be available or adequate to cover future claims. If a loss occurs that is partially or completely uninsured, or the carrier is unable or unwilling to cover the claim, the Company could be exposed to liability.

The Company’s marine transportation segment is dependent on its ability to adequately crew its towing vessels. The Company’s vessels are crewed with employees who are licensed or certified by the USCG, including its captains, pilots, engineers and tankermen. The success of the Company’s marine transportation segment is dependent on the Company’s ability to adequately crew its vessels. As a result, the Company invests significant resources in training its crews and providing crew members an opportunity to advance from a deckhand to the captain of a Company towboat or tugboat. Inland crew members generally work rotations such as 20 days on, 10 days off rotation, or a 30 days on, 15 days off rotation. For the coastal fleet, crew members are generally required to work rotations such as 14 days on, 14 days off rotation, a 21 days on, 21 days off rotation or a 30 days on, 30 days off rotation, dependent upon the location. The nature of crewmember work schedules and assignments away from home for extended periods require special recruiting and at times it can be difficult to find candidates. With ongoing retirements and competitive labor pressure in the marine transportation segment, the Company continues to monitor and implement market competitive pay practices. The Company also utilizes an internal development program to train Maritime Academy graduates for vessel leadership positions.

The Company’s marine transportation segment has approximately 3,160 employees, of which approximately 2,485 are vessel crew members. None of the segment’s inland operations are subject to collective bargaining agreements. The segment’s coastal operations include approximately 500 vessel employees, of whom approximately 330 are subject to collective bargaining agreements in certain geographic areas. Any work stoppages or labor disputes could adversely affect coastal operations in those areas. While the COVID-19 Delta and Omicron variants have caused some crewing issues, to date, the Company has been able to manage its operations with only limited vessel delays and disruption of services, including some loss of revenue and incremental costs in the Company's inland and coastal businesses. The Company continues to update its protocols relating to management of COVID-19 and provide related employee education as new information and guidance becomes available.

The Company’s marine transportation segment is subject to the Jones Act. The Company’s marine transportation segment competes principally in markets subject to the Jones Act, a federal cabotage law that restricts domestic marine transportation in the United States to vessels built and registered in the United States, and manned, owned and operated by United States citizens. The Company presently

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meets all of the requirements of the Jones Act for its owned and operated vessels. The loss of Jones Act status could have a significant negative effect on the Company. The requirements that the Company’s vessels be United States built and manned by United States citizens, the crewing requirements and material requirements of the USCG, and the application of United States labor and tax laws increases the cost of United States flagged vessels compared to comparable foreign flagged vessels. The Company’s business could be adversely affected if the Jones Act or international trade agreements or laws were to be modified or waived as to permit foreign flagged vessels to operate in the United States as these vessels are not subject to the same United States government imposed regulations, laws, and restrictions. Since the events of September 11, 2001, the United States government has taken steps to increase security of United States ports, coastal waters and inland waterways. The Company believes that it is unlikely that the current cabotage provisions of the Jones Act would be eliminated or significantly modified in a way that has a material adverse impact on the Company in the foreseeable future.

The Secretary of Homeland Security is vested with the authority and discretion to waive the Jones Act to such extent and upon such terms as the Secretary may prescribe whenever the Secretary deems that such action is necessary in the interest of national defense. On September 8, 2017, following Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, the Department of Homeland Security issued a waiver of the Jones Act for a 7-day period for shipments from New York, Pennsylvania, Texas and Louisiana to South Carolina, Georgia, Florida and Puerto Rico. The waiver was specifically tailored to address the transportation of refined petroleum products due to disruptions in hurricane-affected areas. On September 11, 2017, the waiver was extended for 11 days and expanded to include additional states. Following Hurricane Maria, on September 28, 2017, the Department of Homeland Security issued a waiver of the Jones Act for movement of products shipped from United States coastwise points to Puerto Rico through October 18, 2017. Two limited waivers of the Jones Act were granted in connection with the shutdown of the Colonial Pipeline in May 2021. Waivers of the Jones Act, whether in response to natural disasters or otherwise, could result in increased competition from foreign tank vessel operators, which could negatively impact the marine transportation segment.

The Company’s marine transportation segment is subject to extensive regulation by the USCG, federal laws, other federal agencies, various state laws, the laws of other countries when operating in their waters, and certain international conventions, as well as numerous environmental regulations. The majority of the Company’s vessels are subject to inspection by the USCG and carry certificates of inspection. The crews employed by the Company aboard vessels are licensed or certified by the USCG. The Company's marine transportation operations are subject to laws of other countries when operating in their waters. The Company is required by various governmental agencies to obtain licenses, certificates and permits for its owned and operated vessels. The Company’s operations are also affected by various United States and state regulations and legislation enacted for protection of the environment. The Company incurs significant expenses and capital expenditures to comply with applicable laws and regulations and any significant new regulation or legislation, including climate change laws or regulations, could have an adverse effect on the Company.

The Company’s marine transportation segment is subject to natural gas and crude oil prices as well as the volatility of their prices as well as the volatility in production of refined products and petrochemicals in the United States. For 2021, 50% of the marine transportation segment’s revenues were from the movement of petrochemicals, including the movement of raw materials and feedstocks from one refinery or petrochemical plant to another, as well as the movement of more finished products to end users and terminals for export. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and petrochemical and refinery plant shutdowns, 2020 and 2021 petrochemical and refined products volumes decreased relative to 2019. Volumes began to recover in 2021 as economic activity improved. The United States petrochemical industry continues to benefit from a low-cost domestically produced natural gas feedstock advantage, producing strong volumes of raw materials and intermediate products for transportation between Gulf Coast petrochemical plants and the transportation of more finished products to terminals for both domestic consumers and for export destinations. In addition, nine new United States petrochemical projects, including expansion of existing plants, are scheduled to be completed during 2022, which should provide additional movements for the marine transportation segment. These increases are partially offset by a reduction in United States refining capacity since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. During 2020, five refineries with a combined capacity of approximately 800,000 barrels per day were closed, of which three have been or are being converted to produce renewable diesel. In 2021, an additional refinery with a capacity of approximately 255,000 barrels per day was closed as a result of damages incurred from Hurricane Ida. Higher natural gas and crude oil prices are generally better for the Company’s businesses; however, higher natural gas prices and other factors could negatively impact the United States petrochemical industry and its production volumes, which could negatively impact the Company.

Demand for tank barge transportation services is driven by the production of volumes of the bulk liquid commodities such as petrochemicals, black oil and refined petroleum products that the Company transports by tank barge. This production can depend on the prevailing level of natural gas and crude oil prices, as well as the volatility of their prices. In general, lower energy prices are good for the United States economy and typically translate into increased petrochemical and refined product demand and therefore increased demand for tank barge transportation services. However, during 2016 and 2017 lower crude oil prices resulted in a decline in domestic crude oil and natural gas condensate production and reduced volumes to be transported by tank barge. The Company estimates that at the beginning of 2015 there were approximately 550 inland tank barges and 35 coastal tank barges in the 195,000 barrels or less category transporting crude oil and natural gas condensate. By the end of 2019, the Company estimates that number of tank barges had declined to 335 inland tank barges and approximately five coastal tank barges transporting crude and natural gas condensate. During 2020, the

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COVID-19 pandemic and oil price volatility resulted in a sharp decrease in volumes of crude and natural gas condensate being transported. As of the end of 2020, the Company estimates that approximately 100 to 150 inland tank barges and one coastal tank barge were transporting crude and natural gas condensate and at the end of 2021, approximately 160 to 170 inland tank barges and one coastal tank barge were transporting crude and natural gas condensate. Volatility in the price of natural gas and crude oil can also result in heightened uncertainty which may lead to decreased production and delays in new petrochemical and refinery plant construction. Increased competition for available black oil and petrochemical barge moves caused by reduced crude oil and natural gas condensate production could have an adverse impact on the Company’s marine transportation segment including as a result of lower spot and term contract rates and/or reluctance to enter into or extend term contracts.

The Company’s marine transportation segment could be adversely impacted by the construction of tank barges by its competitors. At the present time, there are an estimated 4,000 inland tank barges in the United States, of which the Company operates 1,025, or 26%. The number of tank barges peaked at an estimated 4,200 in 1982, slowly declined to 2,750 by 2003, and then gradually increased to an estimated 3,850 by the end of 2015 and 2016 and remained relatively flat since 2015. For 2019, the Company estimated that industry-wide 150 new tank barges were placed in service, of which none were by the Company, and 100 tank barges were retired, 17 of which were by the Company. For 2020, the Company estimated that industry-wide approximately 150 new tank barges were placed in service, six of which were purchased by the Company from another operator, and approximately 150 tank barges were retired, 95 of which were by the Company. For 2021, the Company estimated that industry-wide 70 new tank barges were placed in service, of which none were by the Company, and 90 tank barges were retired, 36 of which were by the Company. The Company estimates that approximately 5 to 10 new tank barges have currently been ordered for delivery in 2022 and expects a number of older tank barges will be retired, dependent on 2022 market conditions.

The long-term risk of an oversupply of inland tank barges may be mitigated by the fact that the inland tank barge industry has approximately 385 tank barges that are 30 years old or older and approximately 280 of those are 40 years old or older. Given the age profile of the industry inland tank barge fleet and extensive customer vetting standards, the expectation is that these older tank barges will continue to be removed from service and replaced by new tank barges as needed, with the extent of both retirements and new builds dependent on petrochemical and refinery production levels and crude oil and natural gas condensate movements, both of which can have a direct effect on industry-wide tank barge utilization, as well as term and spot contract rates.

During 2019, 2020, and 2021, a decline in industry-wide demand for the movement of crude oil and natural gas condensate transportation volumes increased available capacity and resulted in some reluctance among certain customers to extend term contracts, which led to an increase in the number of coastal vessels operating in the spot market. In addition, the Company and the industry added new coastal tank barge capacity during 2019, 2020, and 2021. Much of this new capacity is replacement capacity for older vessels anticipated to be retired.

The Company estimates there are approximately 270 tank barges operating in the 195,000 barrels or less coastal industry fleet, the sector of the market in which the Company operates, and approximately 20 of those are over 25 years old. The Company is aware of two coastal ATBs placed in service in 2019, one in 2020, and one small specialized coastal ATB in 2021 by competitors. There was one announced small specialized coastal ATB delivered in the first quarter of 2021, with no further coastal barges currently under construction.

Higher fuel prices could increase operating expenses and fuel price volatility could reduce profitability. The cost of fuel during 2021 was approximately 11% of marine transportation revenue. The Company's marine transportation term contracts typically include fuel escalation clauses, or the customer pays for the fuel. However, there is generally a 30 to 90 day delay before contracts are adjusted depending on the specific contract. In general, the fuel escalation clauses are effective over the long-term in allowing the Company to adjust to changes in fuel costs due to fuel price changes; however, the short-term effectiveness of the fuel escalation clauses can be affected by a number of factors including, but not limited to, specific terms of the fuel escalation formulas, fuel price volatility, navigating conditions, tow sizes, trip routing, and the location of loading and discharge ports that may result in the Company over or under recovering its fuel costs. The Company’s spot contract rates generally reflect current fuel prices at the time the contract is signed but do not have escalators for fuel.

Significant increases in the construction cost of tank barges and towing vessels may limit the Company’s ability to earn an adequate return on its investment in new tank barges and towing vessels. The price of steel, economic conditions, and supply and demand dynamics can significantly impact the construction cost of new tank barges and towing vessels. Over the last 20 years, the Company’s average construction price for a new 30,000 barrel capacity inland tank barge has fluctuated up or down significantly. For example, the average construction price for a new 30,000 barrel capacity tank barge in 2009 was approximately 90% higher than in 2000, with increases primarily related to higher steel costs. During 2009, the United States and global recession negatively impacted demand levels for inland tank barges and as a result, the construction price of inland tank barges fell significantly in 2010, primarily due to a significant decrease in steel prices, as well as a decrease in the number of tank barges ordered. During 2020, at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, steel costs dropped, however, during 2021, steel prices rose above 2019 levels. These increases in steel costs and improvement in supply

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and demand dynamics resulted in construction prices for a new 30,000 barrel tank barge increasing compared to prices in 2017 when there was an industry-wide over-capacity of inland tank barges in the market.

The Company’s marine transportation segment could be adversely impacted by the failure of the Company’s shipyard vendors to deliver new vessels according to contractually agreed delivery schedules and terms. The Company contracts with shipyards to build new vessels and currently has many vessels under construction. Construction projects are subject to risks of delay and cost overruns, resulting from shortages of equipment, materials and skilled labor; lack of shipyard availability; unforeseen design and engineering problems; work stoppages; weather interference; unanticipated cost increases; unscheduled delays in the delivery of material and equipment; and financial and other difficulties at shipyards including labor disputes, shipyard insolvency and inability to obtain necessary certifications and approvals. A significant delay in the construction of new vessels or a shipyard’s inability to perform under the construction contract could negatively impact the Company’s ability to fulfill contract commitments and to realize timely revenues with respect to vessels under construction. Significant cost overruns or delays for vessels under construction could also adversely affect the Company’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. To date, the Company has not experienced significant shipyard delays associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including at its subsidiary, San Jac.

The Company is subject to competition in its marine transportation segment. The inland and coastal tank barge industry remains very fragmented and competitive. The Company’s primary competitors are noncaptive inland tank barge operators and coastal operators. The Company also competes with companies who operate refined product and petrochemical pipelines, railroad tank cars and tractor-trailer tank trucks. Increased competition from any significant expansion of or additions to facilities or equipment by the Company’s competitors could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations. In addition, the Company’s failure to adhere to its safety, reliability and performance standards may impact its ability to retain current customers or attract new customers.

Distribution and Services Segment Risk Factors

The Company’s distribution and services segment could be adversely impacted by future legislation, executive or other governmental orders, or additional regulation of oil and gas extraction, including hydraulic fracturing practices. The Company, through its United and S&S subsidiaries, is a distributor and service provider of engine and transmission related products for the oil and gas services, power generation and transportation industries, and a manufacturer of oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units. The EPA is studying hydraulic fracturing practices, and legislation may be enacted by Congress that would authorize the EPA to impose additional regulations on hydraulic fracturing. In addition, a number of states have adopted or are evaluating the adoption of legislation or regulations governing hydraulic fracturing or byproducts of the fracturing process. On January 20, 2021, the Biden Administration issued a number of executive orders related to environmental matters that could affect the operations of the Company's customers, including an Executive Order on "Protecting Public Health and the Environment and Restoring Science to Tackle the Climate Crisis" seeking to adopt new regulations and policies to address climate change and suspend, revise, or rescind prior agency actions that are identified as conflicting with the Biden Administration's climate policies. Among the areas that could be affected by the review are regulations addressing methane emissions and the part of the extraction process known as hydraulic fracturing. Various legislative and regulatory initiatives have been proposed that, if passed, could limit or discourage future production of oil and gas. Federal or state legislation, executive or governmental orders, and/or regulations could materially impact customers’ operations and greatly reduce or eliminate demand for the Company’s pressure pumping fracturing equipment and related products. The Company is unable to predict whether future legislation or any other regulations will ultimately be enacted and, if so, the impact on the Company’s distribution and services segment.

The Company’s distribution and services segment could be adversely impacted by the construction of pressure pumping units by its competitors. In early 2015, an estimated 21 million horsepower of pressure pumping units were working, or available to work, in North America. By late 2016, the working horsepower in North America had declined to an estimated 6 million, with an estimated 2 million horsepower scrapped, an estimated 2 million horsepower available for work and an estimated 12.5 million horsepower stacked, the large majority of which would require major service before being placed back in service. A significant drop in demand due to the low price of crude oil resulted in an oversupply in the pressure pumping market and negatively impacted the Company’s 2015 and 2016 results of operations. During 2017 and 2018, with the stabilization of crude oil prices in the $40 to $70 per barrel range, the United States land rig count improved and service intensity in the well completion business increased. As a result, the Company experienced a healthy rebound in service demand during 2018, particularly with pressure pumping unit remanufacturing and transmission overhauls, and with the acquisition of S&S in September 2017, the manufacture of oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, and the sale of transmissions. At the end of 2019, an estimated 15 million horsepower of pressure pumping units were working in North America, with an estimated 6 million horsepower available to work, and 3 million horsepower stacked and in need of major repair. During 2020, a significant reduction in oilfield activity as a result of oil price volatility throughout 2019 and 2020 and the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a decrease to an estimated 6 million horsepower of pressure pumping units working in North America, with an estimated 1.5 million horsepower available to work, and 12 million horsepower stacked and in need of major repair. At the end of 2021, strong commodity prices resulted in an increase to an estimated 12 million horsepower of pressure pumping units working in North America, with an estimated 8 million horsepower idled and in need of major repair. Increased expansion of, or additions to, facilities or equipment by the Company’s competitors could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations.

24


 

Prevailing natural gas and crude oil prices, as well as the volatility of their prices, could have an adverse effect on the distribution and services segment business. Lower energy prices generally result in a decrease in the number of oil and gas wells being drilled. Oilfield service companies reduce their capital spending, resulting in decreased demand for new parts and equipment, including pressure pumping units, provided by the Company’s distribution and services segment. This may also lead to order cancellations from customers or customers requesting to delay delivery of new equipment. The Company also services offshore supply vessels and offshore drillings rigs operating in the Gulf of Mexico, as well as internationally. Low energy prices may negatively impact the number of wells drilled in the Gulf of Mexico and international waters. Prolonged downturns in oil and gas prices may cause substantial declines in oilfield service and exploration expenditures and could adversely impact oil and gas manufacturing, remanufacturing, parts and distribution business. In addition, energy price volatility may also result in difficulties in the Company’s ability to ramp up and ramp down production on a timely basis and, therefore, could result in an adverse impact on the Company’s distribution and services segment.

The Company is subject to competition in its distribution and services segment. The distribution and services industry is very competitive. The segment’s oil and gas market’s principal competitors are independent distribution and service and oilfield manufacturing companies and other factory-authorized distributors and service centers. In addition, certain oilfield service companies that are customers of the Company also manufacture and service a portion of their own oilfield equipment. Increased competition in the distribution and services industry and continued low price of natural gas, crude oil or natural gas condensate, and resulting decline in drilling for such natural resources in North American shale formations, could result in less oilfield equipment being manufactured and remanufactured, lower rates for service and parts pricing and result in less manufacturing, remanufacturing, service and repair opportunities and parts sales for the Company. For the commercial and industrial market, the segment’s primary marine diesel competitors are independent diesel services companies and other factory-authorized distributors, authorized service centers and authorized marine dealers. Certain operators of diesel powered marine equipment also elect to maintain in-house service capabilities. For power generation, the primary competitors are other independent service companies.

Loss of a distributorship or other significant business relationship could adversely affect the Company’s distribution and services segment. The Company’s distribution and services segment has had a relationship with EMD, the largest manufacturer of medium-speed diesel engines, for 56 years. The Company, through Kirby Engine Systems, serves as both an EMD distributor and service center for select markets and locations for both service and parts. With the acquisition of S&S in September 2017, the Company added additional EMD exclusive distributorship rights in key states, primarily through the Central, South and Eastern areas of the United States. With the S&S acquisition, the Company became the United States distributor for EMD marine and power generation applications. Sales and service of EMD products account for approximately 3% of the Company’s revenues for 2021. Although the Company considers its relationship with EMD to be strong, the loss of the EMD distributorship and service rights, or a disruption of the supply of EMD parts, could have a negative impact on the Company’s ability to service its customers. In 2020, with the acquisition of Convoy Servicing Company and Agility Fleet Services, LLC, the Company expanded its dealership network of Thermo King refrigeration systems for trucks, railroad cars, and other land transportation markets in Texas and Colorado. In 2021, sales and service of Thermo King products comprised approximately 6% of the Company’s revenues.

United and S&S have maintained continuous exclusive distribution rights for MTU and Allison since the 1940s. United and S&S are two of MTU’s top five distributors of off-highway engines in North America, with exclusive distribution rights in multiple states. In addition, as distributors of Allison products, United and S&S have exclusive distribution rights in multiple key growth states. United and S&S are also the distributor for parts, service and warranty on Daimler truck engines and related equipment in multiple states. Sales and service of MTU, Allison, and Daimler products accounted for approximately 9% of the Company’s revenues during 2021. Although the Company considers its relationships with MTU, Allison, and Daimler to be strong, the loss of MTU, Allison, or Daimler distributorships and service rights, or a disruption of the supply of MTU or Allison parts, could have a negative impact on the Company’s ability to service its customers.

In addition to its relationships with MTU, Allison, and Daimler, the Company also has relationships with many other distributors and parts suppliers and the loss of a distributorship and service rights, or a disruption of the supply of parts from any of these other distributors or part suppliers could also have a negative impact on the Company’s ability to service its customers.

General Corporate Risk Factors

The Company is subject to adverse weather conditions in its marine transportation and distribution and services segments. The Company’s marine transportation segment is subject to weather condition volatility. Physical impacts of climate change could have a material adverse effect on the Company's costs and operations. There has been public discussion that climate change may be associated with rising sea levels as well as extreme weather conditions such as more intense hurricanes, thunderstorms, tornadoes, drought, and snow or ice storms. Extreme weather conditions may increase the Company's costs or cause damage to its facilities, and any damage resulting from extreme weather may not be fully insured. Many of the Company's facilities are located near coastal areas or waterways where rising sea levels or flooding could disrupt the Company's operations or adversely impact its facilities. Adverse weather conditions such as high or low water on the inland waterway systems, fog and ice, tropical storms, hurricanes, and tsunamis on both the inland waterway systems and throughout the United States coastal waters can impair the operating efficiencies of the marine fleet. Such adverse

25


 

weather conditions can cause a delay, diversion or postponement of shipments of products and are totally beyond the control of the Company. Tropical storms and hurricanes may also impact the Company’s customers resulting in reduced demand for the Company’s services. In addition, adverse water and weather conditions can negatively affect a towing vessel’s performance, tow size, loading drafts, fleet efficiency, limit navigation periods and dictate horsepower requirements. The Company’s distribution and services segment is also subject to tropical storms and hurricanes impacting its coastal locations and those of its customers as well as tornados impacting its Oklahoma facilities. The risk of flooding as a result of hurricanes and tropical storms as well as other weather events may impede travel via roadways, suspend service work, and impact deliveries and the Company’s ability to fulfill orders or provide services in the distribution and services segment.

The Company may be unable to make attractive acquisitions or successfully integrate acquired businesses, and any inability to do so may adversely affect the Company’s business and hinder its ability to grow. The Company has made asset and business acquisitions in the past and may continue to make acquisitions of assets or businesses in the future that complement or expand the Company’s current business. The Company may not be able to identify attractive acquisition opportunities. Even if attractive acquisition opportunities are identified, the Company may not be able to complete the acquisition or do so on commercially acceptable terms. The success of any completed acquisition depends on the Company’s ability to integrate the acquired assets or business effectively into the Company’s existing operations. The process of integrating acquired assets or businesses may involve difficulties that require a disproportionate amount of the Company’s managerial and financial resources to resolve. The value of acquired assets or businesses may be negatively impacted by a variety of circumstances unknown to the Company prior to the acquisition. In addition, possible future acquisitions may be larger and for purchase prices significantly higher than those paid for earlier acquisitions. No assurance can be given that the Company will be able to identify additional suitable acquisition opportunities, negotiate acceptable terms, obtain financing for acquisitions on acceptable terms or successfully acquire identified targets. The Company’s failure to achieve synergies, to integrate successfully the acquired businesses and assets into the Company’s existing operations, or to minimize any unforeseen operational difficulties could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, agreements governing the Company’s indebtedness from time to time may impose certain limitations on the Company’s ability to undertake acquisitions or make investments or may limit the Company’s ability to incur certain indebtedness and liens, which could limit the Company’s ability to make acquisitions.

The Company’s failure to comply with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), or similar local applicable anti-bribery laws, could have a negative impact on its ongoing operations. The Company’s operations outside the United States require the Company to comply with both United States and international regulations. For example, in addition to any similar applicable local anti-bribery laws, the Company's operations in countries outside the United States are subject to the FCPA, which prohibits United States companies or their employees and third party representatives from providing anything of value to a foreign official for the purposes of influencing any act or decision of these individuals in their official capacity to help obtain or retain business, direct business to any person or corporate entity, or obtain any unfair advantage. The Company has internal control policies and procedures and has implemented training and compliance programs for its employees and third party representatives with respect to the FCPA. However, the Company’s policies, procedures and programs may not always protect it from reckless or criminal acts committed by its employees or third party representatives, and severe criminal or civil sanctions could be the result of violations of the FCPA or any other applicable anti-bribery law in countries where the Company does business. The Company is also subject to the risks that its employees, joint venture partners, and third party representatives outside of the United States may fail to comply with other applicable laws.

The Company is subject to risks associated with possible climate change legislation, regulation and international accords. Greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon emissions or energy use, have increasingly become the subject of a large amount of international, national, regional, state and local attention. Pursuant to an April 2007 decision of the United States Supreme Court, the EPA was required to consider if carbon dioxide was a pollutant that endangers public health. On December 7, 2009, the EPA issued its “endangerment finding” regarding greenhouse gasses under the CAA. The EPA found that the emission of six greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (which is emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels), may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health and welfare. Based on this finding, the EPA defined the mix of these six greenhouse gases to be “air pollution” subject to regulation under the CAA. Although the EPA has stated a preference that greenhouse gas regulation be based on new federal legislation rather than the existing CAA, many sources of greenhouse gas emissions may be regulated without the need for further legislation.

The United States Congress has considered in the past legislation that would create an economy-wide “cap-and-trade” system that would establish a limit (or cap) on overall greenhouse gas emissions and create a market for the purchase and sale of emissions permits or “allowances.” Any proposed cap-and-trade legislation would likely affect the chemical industry due to anticipated increases in energy costs as fuel providers pass on the cost of the emissions allowances, which they would be required to obtain under cap-and-trade to cover the emissions from fuel production and the eventual use of fuel by the Company or its energy suppliers. In addition, cap-and-trade proposals would likely increase the cost of energy, including purchases of diesel fuel, steam and electricity, and certain raw materials used or transported by the Company. Proposed domestic and international cap-and-trade systems could materially increase raw material and operating costs of the Company’s customer base. Future environmental regulatory developments related to climate change in the United States that restrict emissions of greenhouse gases could result in financial impacts on the Company’s operations that cannot be predicted with certainty at this time.

26


 

In addition, current global trends incorporating carbon neutral policies and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are driving decarbonization initiatives across all industries to mitigate the impact on climate change and may result in a decline in global and U.S. hydrocarbon usage. Such a decline in hydrocarbon usage (for example, as a result of an increase in electric vehicles) could result in a reduction in demand for (a) the Company’s services in its marine transportation segment to the extent there is reduced demand for crude oil and other feedstocks used and the products produced by the Company’s major refining customers and (b) for the Company’s products and services in its distribution and services segment to the extent there is reduced demand in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons by the Company’s oil and gas customers.

Loss of a large customer could adversely affect the Company. Five marine transportation customers accounted for approximately 17% of the Company’s 2021, 18% of 2020 and 19% of 2019 revenue. The Company has contracts with these customers expiring in 2022 through 2026. Three distribution and services customers accounted for approximately 6% of the Company’s 2021 revenue, 3% of 2020 revenue, and 12% of 2019 revenue. Although the Company considers its relationships with these companies to be strong, the loss of any of these customers, or their inability to meet financial obligations, could have an adverse effect on the Company.

The Company relies on critical operating assets including information systems for the operation of its businesses, and the failure of such assets or any critical information system, including as a result of natural disasters, terrorist acts, a cybersecurity attack, or other extraordinary events, may adversely impact its businesses. The Company is dependent on its critical operating assets and technology infrastructure and must maintain and rely upon critical information systems and security of its assets for the effective and safe operation of its businesses. These assets include vessels, vessel equipment, property and facilities, as well as information systems, such as software applications, hardware equipment, and data networks and telecommunications.

The Company’s critical assets and information systems, including the Company’s proprietary vessel management computer system, are subject to damage or interruption from a number of potential sources, including but not limited to, natural disasters, terrorist acts, cybersecurity attacks, software viruses, and power failures. In addition to standard safety operating procedures, the Company has implemented measures such as business continuity plans, hurricane preparedness plans, emergency recovery processes, and security preparedness plans to protect physical assets and to recover from damage to such assets. The Company has also implemented virus protection software, intrusion detection systems and annual attack and penetration audits to protect information systems to mitigate these risks. However, the Company cannot guarantee that its critical assets or information systems cannot be damaged or compromised.

Any damage or compromise of its critical assets or data security or its inability to use or access these critical assets and information systems could adversely impact the efficient and safe operation of its businesses, or result in the failure to safely operate its equipment, and maintain the confidentiality of data of its customers or its employees and could subject the Company to increased operating expenses or legal action, which could have an adverse effect on the Company.

Limitations on the Company's ability to obtain, maintain, protect, or enforce its proprietary information and any successful intellectual property challenges or infringement proceedings, including its trade secrets could affect the Company's competitive position. The Company's distribution and services businesses rely on a variety of intellectual property rights for its product and services. The Company’s intellectual property could be adversely affected by successful intellectual property challenges or infringement proceedings against it which could materially and adversely affect its competitive position. The Company may also be adversely affected when its patents are unenforceable, where claims allowed are not sufficient to protect its technology or its trade secrets are not adequately protected. The Company's failure to protect its proprietary information and any successful challenges to the Company's intellectual property rights could have an adverse effect on the Company.

A deterioration of the Company’s credit profile, disruptions of the credit markets or higher interest rates could restrict its ability to access the debt capital markets or increase the cost of debt. Deterioration in the Company’s credit profile may have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to access the private or public debt markets and also may increase its borrowing costs. If the Company’s credit profile deteriorates significantly its access to the debt capital markets or its ability to renew its committed lines of credit may become restricted, its cost of debt may increase, or the Company may not be able to refinance debt at the same levels or on the same terms. Because the Company relies on its ability to draw on its Revolving Credit Facility to support its operations as needed, any volatility in the credit and financial markets that prevents the Company from accessing funds on acceptable terms could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and cash flows. Additionally, the pricing grids on Company’s Revolving Credit Facility and Term Loan contain a ratings grid that includes a possible increase in borrowing rates if the Company’s rating declines. Furthermore, the Company incurs interest under its Revolving Credit Facility based on floating rates. Floating rate debt creates higher debt service requirements if market interest rates increase, which would adversely affect the Company’s cash flow and results of operations. In addition, as the floating rate on certain borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility is tied to LIBOR, the uncertainty regarding the future of LIBOR as well as the transition from LIBOR to an alternate benchmark rate or rates could adversely affect the Company’s financing costs.

27


 

Continuing widespread health developments, government imposed COVID-19 vaccine and/or testing mandates, and economic uncertainty resulting from the global COVID-19 pandemic could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In December 2019, COVID-19 surfaced in Wuhan, China. In response to the resulting pandemic, various countries, including the United States, either mandated or recommended business closures, travel restrictions or limitations, social distancing, and/or self-quarantine, among other restrictions. Additionally, various state and local governments in locations where the Company operates took similar actions. The situation continues to evolve as additional variants of the virus appear. Governments have removed, eased, reinstated, or implemented new restrictions in response to changing levels of infection and hospitalization rates. The full extent and duration of these impacts is unknown at this time, but there has been and continues to be a negative impact on the global and United States economies and supply chains, including the oil and gas industry, which has created delays and reduced demand for the Company’s products and services and in some cases, resulted in delays in performance of its contracts with customers.

These impacts could continue to place limitations on the Company’s ability to execute on its business plan and materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, the Company may be exposed to legal liabilities as a result of, or arising out of, the impacts of COVID-19, such as allegations of breach of contract, failure to comply with governmental requirements, and employment related claims, among others. The Company continues to monitor the developments related to COVID-19, adapt its policies and procedures to address the situation, including its pandemic response plan and business continuity plan, and review contract and other legal risk. The Company also took steps to reduce costs. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may also exacerbate other risks discussed above, any of which could have a material effect on the Company. This situation continues to evolve and additional impacts may arise that the Company is not aware of currently.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

Item 2. Properties

The information appearing in Item 1 under “Marine Transportation– Properties” and “Distribution and Services– Properties” is incorporated herein by reference. The Company believes that its facilities are adequate for its needs and additional facilities would be available if required.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

See Note 14, Contingencies and Commitments to the Company’s financial statements.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The Company’s common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol KEX.

As of February 17, 2022, the Company had 60,201,000 outstanding shares held by approximately 480 stockholders of record; however, the Company believes the number of beneficial owners of common stock exceeds this number.

The Company does not have an established dividend policy. Decisions regarding the payment of future dividends will be made by the Board of Directors based on the facts and circumstances that exist at that time. Since 1989, the Company has not paid any dividends on its common stock. The Company’s credit agreements contain covenants restricting the payment of dividends by the Company at any time when there is a default under the agreements.

Item 6. Reserved

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Statements contained in this Form 10-K that are not historical facts, including, but not limited to, any projections contained herein, are forward-looking statements and involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Such statements involve risks and uncertainties. Such statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” or “continue,” or the negative thereof or other variations thereon or comparable terminology. The actual results of the future events described in such forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K could differ materially from those stated in such forward-looking statements. Among the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially are: adverse economic conditions, industry competition and other competitive factors, adverse weather conditions such as high water, low water, tropical storms, hurricanes, tsunamis, fog and ice, tornados, COVID-19 or other pandemics, marine accidents, lock delays, fuel costs, interest rates, construction of new equipment by competitors, government and environmental laws and regulations, and the timing, magnitude and number of acquisitions made by the Company. For a more detailed discussion of factors that could cause actual results to differ from those presented in forward-looking statements, see Item 1A-Risk Factors. Forward-looking statements are based on currently available information and the Company assumes no obligation to update any such statements.

For purposes of Management’s Discussion, all net earnings per share attributable to Kirby common stockholders are “diluted earnings (loss) per share.” The weighted average number of common shares outstanding applicable to diluted earnings (loss) per share for 2021, 2020, and 2019 were 60,053,000, 59,912,000, and 59,909,000, respectively. Refer to the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 for management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations for 2020 compared to 2019.

Overview

The Company is the nation’s largest domestic tank barge operator, transporting bulk liquid products throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, and coastwise along all three United States coasts. The Company transports petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals by tank barge. Through its distribution and services segment, the Company provides after-market service and parts for engines, transmissions, reduction gears, and related equipment used in oilfield services, marine, power generation, on-highway, and other industrial applications. The Company also rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, and high capacity lift trucks, and refrigeration trailers for use in a variety of industrial markets, and manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, manufactures cementing and pumping equipment as well as coil tubing and well intervention equipment, electric power generation equipment, specialized electrical distribution and control equipment, and high capacity energy storage/battery systems for oilfield service customers.

The following table summarizes key operating results of the Company (in thousands, except per share amounts):

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Total revenues

 

$

2,246,660

 

 

$

2,171,408

 

 

$

2,838,399

 

Net earnings (loss) attributable to Kirby

 

$

(246,954

)

 

$

(272,546

)

 

$

142,347

 

Net earnings (loss) per share attributable to Kirby common stockholders – diluted

 

$

(4.11

)

 

$

(4.55

)

 

$

2.37

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

$

321,576

 

 

$

444,940

 

 

$

511,813

 

Capital expenditures

 

$

98,015

 

 

$

148,185

 

 

$

248,164

 

The 2021 third quarter included $340,713,000 before taxes, $275,068,000 after taxes, or $4.58 per share, non-cash charges related to impairment of long-lived assets related to coastal marine transportation equipment and impairment of goodwill in the marine transportation segment. See Note 7, Impairments and Other Charges in the financial statements for additional information. The 2021 fourth quarter was also impacted by a one-time deferred tax provision of $5,656,000 or $0.09 per share related to a change in Louisiana tax law. See Note 9, Taxes on Income for additional information.

The 2020 first quarter included $561,274,000 before taxes, $433,341,000 after taxes, or $7.24 per share, non-cash charges related to inventory write-downs, impairment of long-lived assets, including intangible assets and property and equipment, and impairment of goodwill in the distribution and services segment. See Note 7, Impairments and Other Charges for additional information. In addition, the 2020 first quarter was favorably impacted by an income tax benefit of $50,824,000, or $0.85 per share related to net operating losses generated in 2018 and 2019 used to offset taxable income generated between 2013 and 2017. See Note 9, Taxes on Income for additional information.

The 2019 fourth quarter included $35,525,000 before taxes, $27,978,000 after taxes, or $0.47 per share, non-cash inventory write-downs and $4,757,000 before taxes, $3,747,000 after taxes, or $0.06 per share, severance and early retirement expense.

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Cash provided by operating activities in 2021 decreased primarily due to lower revenues and operating income in the marine transportation segment, partially offset by the receipt of a tax refund of $119,493,000, including accrued interest, for the Company's 2019 federal tax return. During 2021, capital expenditures of $98,015,000 included $84,353,000 in the marine transportation segment and $13,662,000 in the distribution and services segment and corporate, more fully described under cash flow and capital expenditures below.

The Company projects that capital expenditures for 2022 will be in the $170,000,000 to $190,000,000 range. The 2022 construction program will consist of approximately $5,000,000 for the construction of new inland towboats, $145,000,000 to $155,000,000 primarily for maintenance capital and improvements to existing marine equipment and facilities, and $20,000,000 to $30,000,000 for new machinery and equipment, facilities improvements, and information technology projects in the distribution and services segment and corporate. Included in the Company’s construction program is capital spending of approximately $11,000,000 for the construction of a diesel-electric towboat and repowering existing towboats expected to reduce emissions as compared to conventional engine systems of the Company’s marine fleet. The Company has applied for and been awards grants from various government entities totaling approximately $3,800,000 related to certain of these emission reduction projects which it expects to receive reimbursements for in 2023.

The Company’s debt-to-capitalization ratio decreased to 28.7% at December 31, 2021 from 32.2% at December 31, 2020, primarily due to repayments under the Revolving Credit Facility and Term Loan in 2021, partially offset by a decrease in total equity, primarily due to the net loss attributable to Kirby of $246,954,000. The Company’s debt outstanding as of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 is detailed in Long-Term Financing below.

Marine Transportation

The following table summarizes the Company’s marine transportation fleet:

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Inland tank barges:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Owned

 

 

983

 

 

 

1,015

 

Leased

 

 

42

 

 

 

51

 

Total

 

 

1,025

 

 

 

1,066

 

Barrel capacity (in millions)

 

 

22.9

 

 

 

24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Active inland towboats (quarter average):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Owned

 

 

211

 

 

 

210

 

Chartered

 

 

44

 

 

 

38

 

Total

 

 

255

 

 

 

248

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coastal tank barges:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Owned

 

 

30

 

 

 

43

 

Leased

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

Total

 

 

31

 

 

 

44

 

Barrel capacity (in millions)

 

 

3.1

 

 

 

4.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coastal tugboats:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Owned

 

 

26

 

 

 

40

 

Chartered

 

 

3

 

 

 

4

 

Total

 

 

29

 

 

 

44

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Offshore dry-bulk cargo barges (owned)

 

 

4

 

 

 

4

 

Offshore tugboats and docking tugboat (owned and chartered)

 

 

5

 

 

 

5

 

The Company also owns shifting operations and fleeting facilities for dry cargo barges and tank barges on the Houston Ship Channel and in Freeport and Port Arthur, Texas, and Lake Charles, Louisiana, and a shipyard for building towboats and performing routine maintenance near the Houston Ship Channel, as well as a two-thirds interest in Osprey Line, L.L.C., which transports project cargoes and cargo containers by barge.

During 2021, the Company retired 36 inland tank barges and returned five leased barges. The net result was a decrease of 41 inland tank barges and approximately 1,210,000 barrels of capacity.

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For 2021, 59% of the Company’s revenues were generated by its marine transportation segment. The segment’s customers include many of the major petrochemical and refining companies that operate in the United States. Products transported include intermediate materials used to produce many of the end products used widely by businesses and consumers — plastics, fibers, paints, detergents, oil additives and paper, among others, as well as residual fuel oil, ship bunkers, asphalt, gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, crude oil, natural gas condensate and agricultural chemicals. Consequently, the Company’s marine transportation business is directly affected by the volumes produced by the Company’s petroleum, petrochemical and refining customer base.

The Company’s marine transportation segment’s revenues for 2021 decreased 6% compared to 2020 and operating income decreased 61%, compared to 2020. The decreases for 2021 were primarily due to reduced term and spot pricing in the inland market when compared to 2020. The decrease in revenues was partially offset by the increase in the price of diesel fuel and the addition of the Savage Inland Marine, LLC (“Savage”) fleet acquired on April 1, 2020. Revenues and operating income in 2021 were impacted by Hurricane Ida which shut down almost the entire Southeast Louisiana refinery and chemical complex and key waterways for an extended period of time during the third quarter. Winter Storm Uri also heavily impacted the 2021 first quarter with the shutdown of many Gulf Coast refineries and chemical plants for an extended period of time starting in mid-February. These emergency shutdowns resulted in significantly reduced liquids production and lower volumes for the Company’s inland marine transportation market during the 2021 first quarter. The 2021 and 2020 first quarters were also impacted by poor operating conditions including seasonal wind and fog along the Gulf Coast, flooding on the Mississippi River, and various lock closures along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, in addition to ice on the Illinois River during the 2021 first quarter and increased shipyard days on large capacity coastal vessels during the 2020 first quarter. For 2021 and 2020, the inland tank barge fleet contributed 76% and 78%, respectively, and the coastal fleet contributed 24% and 22%, respectively, of marine transportation revenues.

During 2021 and 2020, reduced demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic slowdown contributed to lower barge utilization. Inland tank barge utilization levels averaged in the mid-70% range during the 2021 first quarter, the low to mid-80% range during the 2021 second quarter, the low 80% range during the 2021 third quarter, and the mid-to high 80% range during the 2021 fourth quarter. The 2021 first quarter was impacted by reduced volumes as a result of Winter Storm Uri, whereas the 2021 second quarter was favorably impacted by the Colonial Pipeline outage in May. Subsequently, the third quarter was negatively impacted by Hurricane Ida. For 2020, inland tank barge utilization levels averaged in the low to mid-90% range during the first quarter, the mid-80% range during the second quarter, the low 70% range during the third quarter, and the high 60% range during the fourth quarter. The 2020 first quarter experienced strong demand from petrochemicals, black oil, and refined petroleum products customers prior to the onset of COVID-19. In addition, extensive delay days due to poor operating conditions and lock maintenance projects in the 2020 first quarter slowed the transport of customer cargoes and contributed to strong barge utilization.

Coastal tank barge utilization levels averaged in the mid-70% range during the 2021 first quarter, the low to mid‑70% range during the 2021 second quarter, the mid-70% range during the 2021 third quarter, and the 90% range during the 2021 fourth quarter. The increase in coastal tank barge utilization during the 2021 fourth quarter was primarily due to the retirement of underutilized barges in the 2021 third quarter. In 2020, coastal tank barge utilization levels averaged in the low to mid-80% range during the first quarter and the mid-70% range during each of the second, third, and fourth quarters. Barge utilization in the coastal marine fleet continued to be impacted by the oversupply of tank barges in the coastal industry during 2021 and 2020.

During both 2021 and 2020, approximately 65% of the inland marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 35% were spot contract revenues. These allocations provide the operations with a reasonably predictable revenue stream. Inland time charters, which insulate the Company from revenue fluctuations caused by weather and navigational delays and temporary market declines, represented 58% of the inland revenues under term contracts during 2021 compared to 66% during 2020. During 2021 and 2020, approximately 80% and 85%, respectively, of the coastal revenues were under term contracts and 20% and 15%, respectively, were spot contract revenues. Coastal time charters represented approximately 85% of coastal revenues under term contracts during 2021 compared to 90% during 2020. Term contracts have contract terms of 12 months or longer, while spot contracts have contract terms of less than 12 months.

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The following table summarizes the average range of pricing changes in term and spot contracts renewed during 2021 compared to contracts renewed during the corresponding quarter of 2020:

 

 

Three Months Ended

 

 

March 31, 2021

 

June 30, 2021

 

September 30, 2021

 

December 31, 2021

Inland market:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term increase (decrease)

 

(7)% – (9)%

 

(6)% – (8)%

 

(2)% – (4)%

 

10%

Spot increase (decrease)

 

(25)% – (30)%

 

(10)% – (15)%

 

No change

 

7% – 9%

Coastal market (a):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term increase (decrease)

 

No change

 

No change

 

No change

 

No change

Spot increase (decrease)

 

No change

 

No change

 

No change

 

No change

(a)
Spot and term contract pricing in the coastal market are contingent on various factors including geographic location, vessel capacity, vessel type, and product serviced.

Effective January 1, 2021, annual escalators for labor and the producer price index on a number of inland multi-year contracts resulted in rate increases on those contracts of approximately 3%, excluding fuel.

The 2021 marine transportation operating margin was 4.8% compared to 11.7% for 2020.

Distribution and Services

The Company, through its distribution and services segment, sells genuine replacement parts, provides service mechanics to overhaul and repair engines, transmissions, reduction gears and related oilfield services equipment, rebuilds component parts or entire diesel engines, transmissions and reduction gears, and related equipment used in oilfield services, marine, power generation, on-highway and other industrial applications. The Company also rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, and high capacity lift trucks, and refrigeration trailers for use in a variety of industrial markets, and manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, manufactures cementing and pumping equipment as well as coil tubing and well intervention equipment, electric power generation equipment, specialized electrical distribution and control equipment, and high capacity energy storage/battery systems for oilfield service customers. The Company sells and manufactures various products, including those used in hydraulic fracturing and refrigeration systems, used in oil and gas and industrial applications that, as compared to conventional products, reduce emissions. These products made up approximately 10% of distribution and services segment revenues in 2021.

During 2021, the distribution and services segment generated 41% of the Company’s revenues, of which 88% was generated from service and parts and 12% from manufacturing. The results of the distribution and services segment are largely influenced by cycles of the oilfield service industry and oil and gas operator and producer markets, marine, power generation, on-highway and other industrial markets.

Distribution and services revenues for 2021 increased 20% compared to 2020 and operating income increased 326% compared to 2020. In the commercial and industrial market, the increases in 2021 compared to 2020 were primarily attributable to improved economic activity across the U.S. which resulted in higher business levels in the power generation and on-highway businesses. Increased product sales in Thermo King also contributed favorably to the 2021 results. The marine repair business was down slightly compared to 2020 due to reduced service activity. The commercial and industrial market 2021 results were also impacted by Winter Storm Uri with reduced activity levels at many locations across the Southern U.S. during the first quarter. For 2021 and 2020, the commercial and industrial market contributed 63% and 74%, respectively, of the distribution and services revenues.

In the oil and gas market, revenues improved compared to 2020 due to higher oilfield activity which resulted in increased demand for new and overhauled engines, transmissions, parts, and service. The manufacturing business also experienced increases in orders and deliveries of new and remanufactured pressure pumping equipment as well as power generation equipment for electric fracturing. For 2021 and 2020, the oil and gas market contributed 37% and 26%, respectively, of the distribution and services revenues.

The distribution and services operating margin for 2021 was 3.0% compared to (1.6)% for 2020.

Outlook

Although there are still some uncertainties surrounding the COVID-19 Omicron variant which is currently impacting the Company's operations, the Company expects both the marine transportation and distribution and services segments to deliver improved financial results in 2022.

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The inland marine transportation market is expected to have favorable market conditions in 2022 with improved demand driven by continued economic growth, increased volumes from new petrochemical plants, and minimal new barge construction across the industry. Barge utilization is expected to range between the high 80% range and low 90% range, with an improving spot market, which currently represents approximately 35% of inland revenues. Term contracts renewed lower during the first three quarters of 2021, but rebounded in the fourth quarter and should reset higher during 2022 to reflect improved market conditions. Overall for 2022, inland revenues are expected to improve year-on-year with steady growth throughout the year as business improves and contracts renew. However, growth in the first quarter is expected to be modest due to the impact of winter weather and the COVID-19 Omicron variant which is causing crewing challenges, lost revenue, and incremental costs. Operating margins are expected to improve in 2022, with the first quarter being the lowest.

As of December 31, 2021, the Company estimated there were approximately 4,000 inland tank barges in the industry fleet, of which approximately 385 were 30 years old or older and approximately 280 of those were 40 years old or older. The Company estimates that approximately 5 to 10 new tank barges have currently been ordered for delivery in 2022 and expects a number of older tank barges will be retired, dependent on 2022 market conditions. Historically, 75 to 150 older inland tank barges are retired from service each year industry-wide. The extent of the retirements is dependent on petrochemical and refinery production levels, and crude oil and natural gas condensate movements, both of which can have a direct effect on industry-wide tank barge utilization, as well as term and spot contract rates.

In the coastal marine transportation market, customer demand is expected to modestly improve in 2022 as refined products and black oil transportation volumes continue to recover from the impact of the pandemic. However, pricing is expected to remain challenged due to underutilized barge capacity across the industry. The Company's coastal barge utilization is expected to be in the 90% range in 2022, driven primarily by modest improvement in the spot market and the Company's retirement of underutilized tank barges during the 2021 third quarter. Coastal revenues in 2022 are expected to decrease modestly compared to 2021, with the impact of the Company's exit from the Hawaii market and anticipated reductions in coal shipments being partially offset by modest improvement in spot market utilization. The 2022 first quarter is expected to be impacted by lost revenue and crewing issues related to the Omicron variant, and subsequent quarters are expected to be impacted by planned shipyard maintenance and ballast water treatment installations on certain vessels. Coastal operating margins during 2022 are expected to be similar to 2021 or slightly improved.

As of December 31, 2021, the Company estimated there were approximately 270 coastal tank barges operating in the 195,000 barrels or less industry fleet, the sector of the market in which the Company operates, and approximately 20 of those were over 25 years old. The Company is not aware of any new coastal tank barges that have been ordered.

The results of the distribution and services segment are largely influenced by the cycles of the oilfield service industry and oil and gas operator and producer markets, marine, power generation, on-highway and other industrial markets. Economic growth and strong oilfield fundamentals in 2022 are expected to improve activity levels and contribute to a sizeable year-over-year increase in revenues. In the commercial and industrial market, improving economic conditions and growth in key markets are expected to yield 2022 revenue growth with increased activity in power generation, marine repair, and on-highway.

In the distribution and services oil and gas market, higher commodity prices and increasing well completions activity are expected to improve demand for products and services in the distribution business. In manufacturing, a heightened customer focus on sustainability and the Company's current backlog for environmentally friendly pressure pumping and power generation equipment for electric fracturing is expected to result in significant revenue growth. However, due to ongoing supply chain issues, new equipment deliveries are expected to ramp slowly with the 2022 first quarter being the lowest of the year. Overall, operating margins in distribution and services are expected to improve as the year progresses. Operating margins for the 2022 first quarter are expected to be the lowest of the year due to the timing of projects and ongoing supply chain delays.

While the Company's outlook is dependent on developments regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and related supply chain constraints, the Company has maintained business continuity and expects to continue to do so.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis based on a combination of historical information and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the particular circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates based on different assumptions or conditions. The Company believes the critical accounting policies that most impact the consolidated financial statements are described below. It is also suggested that the Company’s significant accounting policies, as described in the Company’s financial statements in Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, be read in conjunction with this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

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Accounts Receivable. The Company extends credit to its customers in the normal course of business. The Company regularly reviews its accounts and estimates the amount of uncollectible receivables each period and establishes an allowance for uncollectible amounts. The amount of the allowance is based on the age of unpaid amounts, information about the current financial strength of customers, and other relevant information. Estimates of uncollectible amounts are revised each period, and changes are recorded in the period they become known. Historically, credit risk with respect to these trade receivables has generally been considered minimal because of the financial strength of the Company’s customers; however, a United States or global recession or other adverse economic condition could impact the collectability of certain customers’ trade receivables which could have a material effect on the Company’s results of operations.

Property, Maintenance and Repairs. Property is recorded at cost; improvements and betterments are capitalized as incurred. Depreciation is recorded using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the individual assets. When property items are retired, sold, or otherwise disposed of, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts with any gain or loss on the disposition included in the statement of earnings. Maintenance and repairs on vessels built for use on the inland waterways are charged to operating expense as incurred and includes the costs incurred in USCG inspections unless the shipyard extends the life or improves the operating capacity of the vessel which results in the costs being capitalized. The Company’s ocean-going vessels are subject to regulatory drydocking requirements after certain periods of time to be inspected, have planned major maintenance performed and be recertified by the ABS. These recertifications generally occur twice in a five-year period. The Company defers the drydocking expenditures incurred on its ocean-going vessels due to regulatory marine inspections by the ABS and amortizes the costs of the shipyard over the period between drydockings, generally 30 or 60 months, depending on the type of major maintenance performed. Drydocking expenditures that extend the life or improve the operating capability of the vessel result in the costs being capitalized. Routine repairs and maintenance on ocean-going vessels are expensed as incurred. Interest is capitalized on the construction of new ocean-going vessels.

The Company performs an impairment assessment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of long-lived assets may not be recoverable. If a triggering event is identified, the Company compares the carrying amount of the asset group to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset group. If the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds the estimated undiscounted future cash flows, the Company measures the amount of the impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the asset group to its estimated fair value. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. There are many assumptions and estimates underlying the determination of an impairment event or loss, if any. The assumptions and estimates include, but are not limited to, estimated fair market value of the assets and estimated future cash flows expected to be generated by these assets, which are based on additional assumptions such as asset utilization, length of service the asset will be used, and estimated salvage values. Although the Company believes its assumptions and estimates are reasonable, deviations from the assumptions and estimates could produce a materially different result.

Goodwill. The excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in transactions accounted for as a purchase is included in goodwill. Management monitors the recoverability of goodwill on an annual basis, or whenever events or circumstances indicate that interim impairment testing is necessary. The amount of goodwill impairment, if any, is typically measured based on projected discounted future operating cash flows using an appropriate discount rate and valued based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value, incorporating all tax impacts caused by the recognition of the impairment loss. The assessment of the recoverability of goodwill will be impacted if estimated future operating cash flows are not achieved. There are many assumptions and estimates underlying the determination of an impairment event or loss, if any. Although the Company believes its assumptions and estimates are reasonable, deviations from the assumptions and estimates could produce a materially different result.

Accrued Insurance. The Company is subject to property damage and casualty risks associated with operating vessels carrying large volumes of bulk liquid and dry cargo in a marine environment. The Company maintains insurance coverage against these risks subject to a deductible, below which the Company is liable. In addition to expensing claims below the deductible amount as incurred, the Company also maintains a reserve for losses that may have occurred but have not been reported to the Company, or are not yet fully developed. The Company uses historic experience and actuarial analysis by outside consultants to estimate an appropriate level of accrued liabilities. If the actual number of claims and magnitude were substantially greater than assumed, the required level of accrued liabilities for claims incurred but not reported or fully developed could be materially understated. The Company records receivables from its insurers for incurred claims above the Company’s deductible. If the solvency of the insurers became impaired, there could be an adverse impact on the accrued receivables and the availability of insurance.

Acquisitions

During 2021, the Company purchased four inland tank barges from a leasing company for $7,470,000 in cash. The Company had been leasing the barges prior to the purchase.

On October 4, 2021, the Company paid $1,645,000 in cash to purchase assets of an energy storage systems manufacturer based in Texas which have been key to the development of new power generation solutions for electric fracturing equipment.

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During 2020, the Company purchased six newly constructed inland pressure barges for $39,350,000 in cash.

On April 1, 2020, the Company completed the acquisition of the inland tank barge fleet of Savage for $278,999,000 in cash. Savage’s tank barge fleet consisted of 92 inland tank barges with approximately 2.5 million barrels of capacity and 45 inland towboats. The Savage assets that were acquired primarily move petrochemicals, refined products, and crude oil on the Mississippi River, its tributaries, and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Company also acquired Savage’s ship bunkering business and barge fleeting business along the Gulf Coast.

On January 3, 2020, the Company completed the acquisition of substantially all the assets of Convoy for $37,180,000 in cash. Convoy is an authorized dealer for Thermo King refrigeration systems for trucks, railroad cars and other land transportation markets for North and East Texas and Colorado.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company purchased, from various counterparties, a barge fleeting operation in Lake Charles, Louisiana and nine inland tank barges from leasing companies for an aggregate of $17,991,000 in cash. The Company had been leasing the barges prior to the purchases.

On March 14, 2019, the Company completed the acquisition of the marine transportation fleet of Cenac for $244,500,000 in cash. Cenac’s fleet consisted of 63 inland 30,000 barrel tank barges with approximately 1,833,000 barrels of capacity, 34 inland towboats and two offshore tugboats. Cenac transported petrochemicals, refined products and black oil, including crude oil, residual fuels, feedstocks and lubricants on the lower Mississippi River, its tributaries, and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway for major oil companies and refiners. The average age of the inland tank barges was approximately five years and the inland towboats had an average age of approximately seven years.

Financing of these purchases and acquisitions was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility and cash provided by operating activities.

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth the Company’s marine transportation and distribution and services revenues and the percentage of each to total revenues for the comparable periods (dollars in thousands):

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

%

 

 

2020

 

 

%

 

 

2019

 

 

%

 

Marine transportation

 

$

1,322,918

 

 

 

59

%

 

$

1,404,265

 

 

 

65

%

 

$

1,587,082

 

 

 

56

%

Distribution and services

 

 

923,742

 

 

 

41

 

 

 

767,143

 

 

 

35

 

 

 

1,251,317

 

 

 

44

 

 

 

$

2,246,660

 

 

 

100

%

 

$

2,171,408