UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission File no. 1-07615


Kirby Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Nevada
74-1884980
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
55 Waugh Drive, Suite 1000
 
Houston, Texas
77007
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(713) 435-1000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock
KEX
New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.  Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No
 





Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted  pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020, based on the closing sales price of such stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2020, was $3,178,530,000. For purposes of this computation, all executive officers, directors and 10% beneficial owners of the registrant are deemed to be affiliates. Such determination should not be deemed an admission that such executive officers, directors and 10% beneficial owners are affiliates.

As of February 19, 2021, 60,085,000 shares of common stock were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Company’s definitive proxy statement in connection with the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held April 27, 2021, to be filed with the Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.
2


KIRBY CORPORATION
2020 FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
PART I
 
4
4
4
5
6
7
7
8
9
9
10
11
14
15
15
16
19
19
21
21
22
22
22
22
23
24
26
34
34
34
34
PART II
 
35
35
36
59
60
60
60
60
PART III
 
60
PART IV
 
102
103


3

PART I

Item 1.
Business

THE COMPANY

Kirby Corporation (the “Company”) is the nation’s largest domestic tank barge operator, transporting bulk liquid products throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, coastwise along all three United States coasts, and in Alaska and Hawaii. The Company transports petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals by tank barge. The Company also operates four offshore dry-bulk cargo barges, four offshore tugboats and one docking tugboat transporting dry-bulk commodities in the United States coastal trade. Through its distribution and services segment, the Company provides after-market service and parts for engines, transmissions, reduction gears, and related equipment used in oilfield services, marine, power generation, on-highway and other industrial applications. The Company also rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, railcar movers, and high capacity lift trucks for use in a variety of industrial markets, and manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, for land-based oilfield service customers.

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references herein to the Company include the Company and its subsidiaries.

The Company’s principal executive office is located at 55 Waugh Drive, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77007, and its telephone number is 713-435-1000. The Company’s mailing address is P.O. Box 1745, Houston, Texas 77251-1745. Kirby Corporation is a Nevada corporation and was incorporated in 1969 although the history of the Company goes back to 1921.

Documents and Information Available on Website

The Internet address of the Company’s website is http://www.kirbycorp.com. The Company makes available free of charge through its website, all of its filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), including its Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC.

The following documents are available on the Company’s website in the Investor Relations section under Corporate Governance:

Audit Committee Charter

Compensation Committee Charter

Governance Committee Charter

Business Ethics Guidelines

Corporate Governance Guidelines

The Company is required to make prompt disclosure of any amendment to or waiver of any provision of its Business Ethics Guidelines that applies to any director or executive officer or to its chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief accounting officer or controller or persons performing similar functions. The Company will make any such disclosure that may be necessary by posting the disclosure on its website in the Investor Relations section under Corporate Governance.

4

BUSINESS AND PROPERTY

The Company, through its subsidiaries, conducts operations in two reportable business segments: marine transportation and distribution and services.

The Company, through its marine transportation segment, is a provider of marine transportation services, operating tank barges and towing vessels transporting bulk liquid products throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, coastwise along all three United States coasts, and in Alaska and Hawaii. The Company transports petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals by tank barge. The Company operates offshore dry-bulk barge and tugboat units engaged in the offshore transportation of dry-bulk cargoes in the United States coastal trade. The segment is a provider of transportation services for its customers and, in almost all cases, does not assume ownership of the products that it transports. All of the Company’s vessels operate under the United States flag and are qualified for domestic trade under the Jones Act.

The Company, through its distribution and services segment, sells genuine replacement parts, provides service mechanics to overhaul and repair engines, transmissions, reduction gears and related oilfield services equipment, rebuilds component parts or entire diesel engines, transmissions and reduction gears, and related equipment used in oilfield services, marine, power generation, on-highway and other industrial applications. The Company also rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, railcar movers and high capacity lift trucks for use in a variety of industrial markets, and manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, for land-based oilfield service customers.

The Company has approximately 5,400 employees, the large majority of whom are in the United States.

5

MARINE TRANSPORTATION

The marine transportation segment is primarily a provider of transportation services by tank barge for the inland and coastal markets. As of December 31, 2020, the equipment owned or operated by the marine transportation segment consisted of 1,066 inland tank barges with 24.1 million barrels of capacity, and an average of 248 inland towboats during the 2020 fourth quarter, as well as 44 coastal tank barges with 4.2 million barrels of capacity, 44 coastal tugboats, four offshore dry-bulk cargo barges, four offshore tugboats and one docking tugboat with the following specifications and capacities:

Class of equipment
 
Number in
class
   
Average age
(in years)
   
Barrel
capacities
 
Inland tank barges (owned and leased):
                 
Regular double hull:
                 
20,000 barrels and under
   
347
     
14.0
     
4,053,000
 
Over 20,000 barrels
   
665
     
12.3
     
19,114,000
 
Specialty double hull
   
54
     
35.3
     
913,000
 
Total inland tank barges
   
1,066
     
14.0
     
24,080,000
 
                         
Inland towboats (owned and chartered):
                       
800 to 1300 horsepower
   
38
     
35.1
         
1400 to 1900 horsepower
   
30
     
24.0
         
2000 to 2400 horsepower
   
135
     
11.1
         
2500 to 3200 horsepower
   
31
     
12.7
         
3300 to 4800 horsepower
   
11
     
27.3
         
Greater than 5000 horsepower
   
3
     
17.4
         
Total inland towboats
   
248
     
17.4
         
                         
Coastal tank barges (owned and leased):
                       
30,000 barrels and under
   
2
     
26.1
     
37,000
 
50,000 to 70,000 barrels
   
9
     
15.4
     
437,000
 
80,000 to 90,000 barrels
   
17
     
16.5
     
1,422,000
 
100,000 to 110,000 barrels
   
6
     
14.5
     
630,000
 
120,000 to 150,000 barrels
   
3
     
19.0
     
416,000
 
Over 150,000 barrels
   
7
     
7.7
     
1,210,000
 
Total coastal tank barges
   
44
     
15.2
     
4,152,000
 
                         
Coastal tugboats (owned and chartered):
                       
1000 to 1900 horsepower
   
4
     
32.5
         
2000 to 2900 horsepower
   
1
     
45.1
         
3000 to 3900 horsepower
   
7
     
38.2
         
4000 to 4900 horsepower
   
10
     
13.0
         
5000 to 6900 horsepower
   
14
     
10.1
         
Greater than 7000 horsepower
   
8
     
13.8
         
Total coastal tugboats
   
44
     
18.3
         

             
Deadweight
Tonnage
 
Offshore dry-bulk cargo barges (owned)
   
4
     
22.1
     
67,000
 
                         
Offshore tugboats and docking tugboat (owned and chartered)
   
5
     
29.5
         

6

The 248 inland towboats, 44 coastal tugboats, four offshore tugboats and one docking tugboat provide the power source and the 1,066 inland tank barges, 44 coastal tank barges and four offshore dry-bulk cargo barges provide the freight capacity for the marine transportation segment. When the power source and freight capacity are combined, the unit is called a tow. The Company’s inland tows generally consist of one towboat and from one to up to 25 tank barges, depending upon the horsepower of the towboat, the waterway infrastructure capacity and conditions, and customer requirements. The Company’s coastal and offshore tows primarily consist of one tugboat and one tank barge or dry-bulk cargo barge.

Marine Transportation Industry Fundamentals

The United States inland waterway system, composed of a network of interconnected rivers and canals that serve the nation as water highways, is one of the world’s most efficient transportation systems. The nation’s inland waterways are vital to the United States distribution system, with over 1.1 billion short tons of cargo moved annually on United States shallow draft waterways. The inland waterway system extends approximately 26,000 miles, 12,000 miles of which are generally considered significant for domestic commerce, through 38 states, with 635 shallow draft ports. These navigable inland waterways link the United States heartland to the world.

The United States coastal waterway system consists of ports along the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts, as well as ports in Alaska, Hawaii and on the Great Lakes. Like the inland waterways, the coastal trade is vital to the United States distribution system, particularly the regional distribution of refined petroleum products from refineries and storage facilities to a variety of destinations, including other refineries, distribution terminals, power plants and ships. In addition to distribution directly from refineries and storage facilities, coastal tank barges are used frequently to distribute products from pipelines. Many coastal markets receive refined petroleum products principally from coastal tank barges. Smaller volumes of petrochemicals are distributed from Gulf Coast plants to end users and black oil, including crude oil and natural gas condensate, is distributed regionally from refineries and terminals along the United States coast to refineries, power plants and distribution terminals.

Based on cost and safety, barge transportation is often the most efficient and safest means of surface transportation of bulk commodities when compared to railroads and trucks. The cargo capacity of a 27,500 barrel inland tank barge is the equivalent of 46 railroad tank cars or 144 tractor-trailer tank trucks. A typical Company lower Mississippi River linehaul tow of 15 barges has the carrying capacity of approximately 216 railroad tank cars plus six locomotives, or approximately 1,050 tractor-trailer tank trucks. The Company’s inland tank barge fleet capacity of 24.1 million barrels equates to approximately 40,300 railroad tank cars or approximately 126,000 tractor-trailer tank trucks. Furthermore, barging is much more energy efficient. One ton of bulk product can be carried 647 miles by inland barge on one gallon of fuel, compared to 477 miles by railcar or 145 miles by truck. In the coastal trade, the carrying capacity of a 100,000 barrel tank barge is the equivalent of approximately 165 railroad tank cars or approximately 525 tractor-trailer tank trucks. The Company’s coastal tank barge fleet capacity of 4.2 million barrels equates to approximately 6,950 railroad tank cars or approximately 21,750 tractor-trailer tank trucks. Marine transportation generally involves less urban exposure than railroad or truck transportation and operates on a system with few crossing junctures and often in areas relatively remote from population centers. These factors generally help to reduce the number of waterway incidents.

Inland Tank Barge Industry

The Company operates within the United States inland tank barge industry, a diverse and independent mixture of approximately 30 large integrated transportation companies and small operators, as well as captive fleets owned by refining and petrochemical companies. The inland tank barge industry provides marine transportation of bulk liquid cargoes for customers and, in the case of captives, for their own account, throughout the Mississippi River and its tributaries and on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The most significant markets in this industry include the transportation of petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals. The Company operates in each of these markets. The use of marine transportation by the petroleum and petrochemical industry is a major reason for the location of United States refineries and petrochemical facilities on navigable inland waterways. Texas and Louisiana currently account for approximately 80% of the United States production of petrochemicals. Much of the United States farm belt is likewise situated with access to the inland waterway system, relying on marine transportation of farm products, including agricultural chemicals. The Company’s principal distribution system encompasses the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway from Brownsville, Texas, to Port St. Joe, Florida, the Mississippi River System and the Houston Ship Channel. The Mississippi River System includes the Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Red, Tennessee, Yazoo, Ouachita and Black Warrior Rivers and the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.

7

The number of tank barges that operate on the inland waterways of the United States declined from an estimated 4,200 in 1982 to 2,900 in 1993, remained relatively constant at 2,900 until 2002, decreased to 2,750 from 2002 through 2006, then increased over the years to approximately 3,850 by the end of 2015 and 2016, and slightly decreased to an estimated 3,825 at the end of 2017.  By the end of 2019, the number of tank barges increased to near 4,000, and remained flat during 2020. The Company believes the decrease from 4,200 in 1982 to 2,750 in 2006 primarily resulted from: the increasing age of the domestic tank barge fleet, resulting in scrapping; rates inadequate to justify new construction; a reduction in tax incentives, which previously encouraged speculative construction of new equipment; stringent operating standards to adequately cope with safety and environmental risk; the elimination of government regulations and programs supporting the many small refineries and the proliferation of oil traders which created a strong demand for tank barge services; an increase in the average capacity per barge; and an increase in environmental regulations that mandate expensive equipment modification, which some owners were unwilling or unable to undertake given capital constraints and the age of their fleets. The cost of tank barge hull work for required periodic United States Coast Guard (“USCG”) certifications, as well as general safety and environmental concerns, force operators to periodically reassess their ability to recover maintenance costs. The increase from 2,750 tank barges in 2006 to approximately 3,850 by the end of 2016 primarily resulted from increased barge construction and deferred retirements due to strong demand and resulting capacity shortages. The number of industry tank barges has remained relatively constant from 2016 through the end of 2020. The Company’s 1,066 inland tank barges represent approximately 27% of the industry’s 4,000 inland tank barges.

For 2018, the Company estimated that industry-wide 75 new tank barges were placed in service and 100 tank barges were retired. For 2019, the Company estimated that industry-wide 150 new tank barges were placed in service and 100 tank barges were retired. For 2020, the Company estimated that industry-wide approximately 150 new tank barges were placed in service and 150 tank barges were retired.  During 2018 and 2019, demand for inland tank barge transportation and industry barge utilization rates increased above 90% due to a favorable pricing environment for customers’ products, new petrochemical industry capacity that led to increased movements of petrochemicals, and higher volumes of crude oil moved from the Northern U.S. to the Gulf Coast.  During 2020, tank barge utilization decreased from the low to mid-90% range in the 2020 first quarter to the high 60% range during the 2020 fourth quarter as a result of a reduction in demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company estimates that approximately 35 new tank barges were ordered for delivery in 2021. Generally, the risk of an oversupply of tank barges may be mitigated by increased petrochemical, black oil and refined petroleum products volumes from increased production from current facilities, plant expansions, the opening of new facilities, and the fact that the inland tank barge industry has approximately 350 tank barges over 30 years old and approximately 260 of those are over 40 years old, which could lead to retirement of older tank barges. The average age of the nation’s inland tank barge fleet is approximately 15 years.

The Company’s inland marine transportation segment also owns a shifting operation and fleeting facility for dry cargo barges and tank barges on the Houston Ship Channel, in Freeport and Port Arthur, Texas, and Lake Charles, Louisiana, and a shipyard for building inland towboats and providing routine maintenance on marine vessels. The Company also owns a two-thirds interest in Osprey Line, L.L.C. (“Osprey”), a transporter of project cargoes and cargo containers by barge on the United States inland waterway system.

Coastal Tank Barge Industry

The Company also operates in the United States coastal tank barge industry, operating tank barges in the 195,000 barrels or less category. This market is composed of approximately 20 large integrated transportation companies and small operators. The 195,000 barrels or less category coastal tank barge industry primarily provides regional marine transportation distribution of bulk liquid cargoes along the United States’ Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts, in Alaska and Hawaii and, to a lesser extent, on the Great Lakes. Products transported are primarily refined petroleum products and black oil from refineries and storage facilities to a variety of destinations, including other refineries, distribution terminals, power plants and ships, the regional movement of crude oil and natural gas condensate to Gulf Coast, Northeast and West Coast refineries, and the movement of petrochemicals primarily from Gulf Coast petrochemical facilities to end users.

8

The number of coastal tank barges that operate in the 195,000 barrels or less category is approximately 280, of which the Company operates 44 or approximately 16%. The average age of the nation’s coastal tank barge fleet is approximately 14 years. In June 2018, the Company purchased a 155,000 barrel coastal articulated tank barge and tugboat unit (“ATB”) under construction from another operator that was delivered to the Company in the 2018 fourth quarter. The Company is aware of one small specialized coastal ATB under construction by a competitor for delivery in 2021. The coastal tank barge fleet has approximately 20 tank barges over 25 years old. The number of older tank barges, coupled with low industry-wide barge utilization levels and ballast water treatment regulations, could lead to further retirements of older tank barges in the next few years.

Competition in the Tank Barge Industry

The tank barge industry remains very competitive. Competition in this business is based on price and reliability, and with many of the industry’s customers emphasizing enhanced vetting requirements, an increased emphasis on safety, the environment, and quality, frequently requiring that their supplier of tank barge services have the capability to handle a variety of tank barge requirements. These requirements include distribution capability throughout the inland waterway system and coastal markets, with high levels of flexibility, and an emphasis on safety, environmental responsibility and financial responsibility, as well as adequate insurance and high quality of service consistent with the customer’s own operational standards.

In the inland markets, the Company’s direct competitors are primarily noncaptive inland tank barge operators. “Captive” fleets are owned by refining and petrochemical companies which occasionally compete in the inland tank barge market, but primarily transport cargoes for their own account. The Company is the largest inland tank barge carrier, both in terms of number of barges and total fleet barrel capacity. The Company’s inland tank barge fleet has grown from 71 tank barges in 1988 to 1,066 tank barges as of December 31, 2020, or approximately 27% of the estimated total number of domestic inland tank barges.

In the coastal markets, the Company’s direct competitors are the operators of United States tank barges in the 195,000 barrels or less category. Coastal tank barges in the 195,000 barrels or less category have the ability to enter the majority of coastal ports. Ocean-going tank barges and United States product tankers in the 300,000 barrels plus category, excluding the fleet of large tankers dedicated to Alaska crude oil transportation, occasionally compete in the 195,000 barrels or less market to move large volumes of refined petroleum products within the Gulf of Mexico with occasional movements from the Gulf Coast to the East Coast, along the West Coast and from Texas and Louisiana to Florida. However, of the approximately 45 such vessels, because of their size, their access to ports is limited by terminal size and draft restrictions.

While the Company competes primarily with other tank barge companies, it also competes with companies who operate refined product and petrochemical pipelines, railroad tank cars and tractor-trailer tank trucks. As noted above, the Company believes that both inland and coastal marine transportation of bulk liquid products enjoy a substantial cost advantage over railroad and truck transportation. The Company believes that refined product and crude oil pipelines, although often a less expensive form of transportation than inland and coastal tank barges, are not as adaptable to diverse products and are generally limited to fixed point-to-point distribution of commodities in high volumes over extended periods of time.

Products Transported

The Company transports petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals by tank barge throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, coastwise along all three United States coasts, and in Alaska and Hawaii. During 2020, the Company’s inland marine transportation operation moved over 45 million tons of liquid cargo on the United States inland waterway system.

Petrochemicals. Bulk liquid petrochemicals transported include such products as benzene, styrene, methanol, acrylonitrile, xylene, naphtha and caustic soda, all consumed in the production of paper, fiber and plastics. Pressurized products, including butadiene, isobutane, propylene, butane and propane, all requiring pressurized conditions to remain in stable liquid form, are transported in pressure barges. The transportation of petrochemical products represented 52% of the segment’s 2020 revenues. Customers shipping these products are petrochemical and refining companies.

9

Black Oil. Black oil transported includes such products as residual fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, coker feedstock, vacuum gas oil, asphalt, carbon black feedstock, crude oil, natural gas condensate and ship bunkers (engine fuel). Such products represented 26% of the segment’s 2020 revenues. Black oil customers are refining companies, marketers, and end users that require the transportation of black oil between refineries and storage terminals, to refineries and to power plants. Ship bunker customers are oil companies and oil traders in the bunkering business.

Refined Petroleum Products. Refined petroleum products transported include the various blends of finished gasoline, gasoline blendstocks, jet fuel, No. 2 oil, heating oil and diesel fuel, and represented 19% of the segment’s 2020 revenues. The Company also classifies ethanol in the refined petroleum products category. Customers are oil and refining companies, marketers and ethanol producers.

Agricultural Chemicals. Agricultural chemicals transported represented 3% of the segment’s 2020 revenues. Agricultural chemicals include anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen-based liquid fertilizer, as well as industrial ammonia. Agricultural chemical customers consist mainly of domestic and foreign producers of such products.

Demand Drivers in the Tank Barge Industry

Demand for tank barge transportation services is driven by the production volumes of the bulk liquid commodities. Marine transportation demand for the segment’s four primary commodity groups, petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals, is based on differing circumstances. While the demand drivers of each commodity are different, the Company has the flexibility, in certain cases, of reallocating inland equipment and coastal equipment among the petrochemical, refined petroleum products and black oil markets as needed.

Petrochemical products are used in both consumer non-durable and durable goods. Bulk petrochemical volumes have historically tracked the general domestic economy and correlate to the United States Gross Domestic Product. From late 2010 through 2015, inland petrochemical tank barge utilization remained relatively stable in the 90% to 95% range. During 2016, barge utilization declined to the high 80% range on average with periods of barge utilization in the low 80% range. During 2017 and 2018, barge utilization ranged from the mid-80% to the mid-90% range, reaching the mid-90% range in the late 2017 third quarter from the impact of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and in the low to mid-90% range during the 2017 fourth quarter and the majority of 2018 and 2019 as a result of a favorable pricing environment for customers’ products, new petrochemical industry capacity that led to increased movements of petrochemicals, and the continued retirement of older barges from the segment’s fleet.  During 2020, Gulf Coast petrochemical plants saw reduced production levels as a result of lower demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic thereby decreasing marine transportation volumes of basic petrochemicals to both domestic consumers and terminals for export destinations. In addition, during the 2020 third quarter, the petrochemical complex along the Gulf Coast was impacted by hurricanes and tropical storms, further reducing barge volumes and closing critical waterways for extended periods of time.  As a result, barge utilization decreased from the low to mid-90% range during the 2020 first quarter to the high 60% range in the 2020 fourth quarter.  Coastal tank barge utilization for the transportation of petrochemicals remained steady in the mid-to-high 80% range for 2018 through 2020 due to a high percentage of  term contracts.

The demand for black oil, including ship bunkers, varies by type of product transported. Demand for transportation of residual oil, a heavy by-product of refining operations, varies with refinery utilization and usage of feedstocks. During the majority of 2015, inland black oil tank barge utilization remained strong, in the 90% to 95% range, due to strong demand driven by steady refinery production levels from major customers and the export of diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil. With the decline in the price of crude oil in late 2014 and the low price throughout 2015 and 2016, crude oil and natural gas condensate movements by tank barge were at reduced levels industry-wide. During 2015 and 2016, the Company and the industry were generally successful in repositioning barges from that trade to other markets. During 2018 and 2019, the Company continued to transport crude oil and natural gas condensate produced from the Eagle Ford and Permian Basin shale formations in Texas both along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway with inland vessels and in the Gulf of Mexico with coastal equipment, and continued to transport Utica crude oil and natural gas condensate downriver from the Mid-Atlantic to the Gulf Coast, albeit, at reduced levels as some of the product was transported by newly constructed pipelines.  During 2020, the Company experienced a further decrease in volumes being transported along these routes as a result of reduced demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic and oil price volatility during the year.  During 2018, strong demand for crude oil and natural gas condensate movements resulted in inland black oil tank barge utilization in the mid-90% range, and increased into the mid-to high 90% range during 2019.  During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced demand for crude oil and natural gas condensate movements and resulted in a decrease in black oil tank barge utilization from the low to mid-90% range during the 2020 first half to the mid-60% to low 70% range during the 2020 second half. Coastal black oil tank barge utilization increased from the low 90% range in 2018 to the high 90% range in 2019 due to the retirement of coastal barges throughout the industry and declined slightly to the mid 90% range in 2020, despite the reduced demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic as utilization was supported by a high percentage of  term contracts.  Inland and coastal asphalt shipments are generally seasonal, with higher volumes shipped during April through November, months when weather allows for efficient road construction.

10

Refined petroleum product volumes are driven by United States gasoline and diesel fuel consumption, principally vehicle usage, air travel, and weather conditions. Volumes can also be affected by gasoline inventory imbalances within the United States. Generally, gasoline and No. 2 oil are exported from the Gulf Coast where refining capacity exceeds demand. The Midwest is a net importer of such products. Volumes were also driven by diesel fuel transported to terminals along the Gulf Coast for export to South America. Ethanol, produced in the Midwest, is moved from the Midwest to the Gulf Coast. In the coastal trade, tank barges are frequently used regionally to transport refined petroleum products from a coastal refinery or terminals served by pipelines to the end markets. Many coastal areas rely upon access to refined petroleum products by using marine transportation in the distribution chain. Coastal refined petroleum products tank barge utilization declined from the 90% to 95% range for the majority of 2015 to the low to mid-80% range for the majority of 2016, and declined throughout 2017 from the low 80% range in first quarter to the low 60% range in the fourth quarter, all predominately from the industry-wide oversupply of coastal tank barge capacity. In 2018 and 2019, barge utilization increased from the mid-60% range to the low 70% range primarily due to the retirement of out-of-service coastal barges during the 2017 fourth quarter and improved customer demand resulting in higher barge utilization in the spot market in 2019.  In 2020, coastal refined petroleum products tank barge utilization declined to the low 60% range due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting reduction in demand.

Demand for marine transportation of domestic and imported agricultural fertilizer is seasonal and directly related to domestic nitrogen-based liquid fertilizer consumption, driven by the production of corn, cotton and wheat. During periods of high natural gas prices, the manufacturing of nitrogen-based liquid fertilizer in the United States is curtailed. During these periods, imported products, which normally involve longer barge trips, replace the domestic products to meet Midwest and South Texas demands. Such products are delivered to the numerous small terminals and distributors throughout the United States farm belt.

Marine Transportation Operations

The marine transportation segment operates a fleet of 1,066 inland tank barges and an average of 248 inland towboats during the 2020 fourth quarter, as well as 44 coastal tank barges and 44 coastal tugboats. The segment also operates four offshore dry-bulk cargo barges, four offshore tugboats and one docking tugboat transporting dry-bulk commodities in United States coastal trade.

Inland Operations. The segment’s inland operations are conducted through a wholly owned subsidiary, Kirby Inland Marine, LP (“Kirby Inland Marine”). Kirby Inland Marine’s operations consist of the Canal, Linehaul and River fleets, as well as barge fleeting services.

The Canal fleet transports petrochemical feedstocks, processed chemicals, pressurized products, black oil, and refined petroleum products along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, the Mississippi River below Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and the Houston Ship Channel. Petrochemical feedstocks and certain pressurized products are transported from one plant to another plant for further processing. Processed chemicals and certain pressurized products are moved to waterfront terminals and chemical plants. Black oil is transported to waterfront terminals and products such as No. 6 fuel oil are transported directly to the end users. Refined petroleum products are transported to waterfront terminals along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway for distribution.

The Linehaul fleet transports petrochemical feedstocks, chemicals, agricultural chemicals and lube oils along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Mississippi River and the Illinois and Ohio Rivers. Loaded tank barges are staged in the Baton Rouge area from Gulf Coast refineries and petrochemical plants, and are transported from Baton Rouge, Louisiana to waterfront terminals and plants on the Mississippi, Illinois and Ohio Rivers, and along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, on regularly scheduled linehaul tows. Barges are dropped off and picked up going up and down river.

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The River fleet transports petrochemical feedstocks, chemicals, refined petroleum products, agricultural chemicals and black oil along the Mississippi River System above Baton Rouge. The River fleet operates unit tows, where a towboat and generally a dedicated group of barges operate on consecutive voyages between loading and discharge points. Petrochemical feedstocks and processed chemicals are transported to waterfront petrochemical and chemical plants, while black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals are transported to waterfront terminals.

The inland transportation of petrochemical feedstocks, chemicals and pressurized products is generally consistent throughout the year. Transportation of refined petroleum products, certain black oil and agricultural chemicals is generally more seasonal. Movements of black oil, such as asphalt, generally increase in the spring through fall months. Movements of refined petroleum products, such as gasoline blends, generally increase during the summer driving season, while heating oil movements generally increase during the winter months. Movements of agricultural chemicals generally increase during the spring and fall planting seasons.

The marine transportation inland operation moves and handles a broad range of sophisticated cargoes. To meet the specific requirements of the cargoes transported, the inland tank barges may be equipped with self-contained heating systems, high-capacity pumps, pressurized tanks, refrigeration units, stainless steel tanks, aluminum tanks or specialty coated tanks. Of the 1,066 inland tank barges currently operated, 818 are petrochemical and refined petroleum products barges, 162 are black oil barges, 76 are pressure barges and 10 are refrigerated anhydrous ammonia barges. Of the 1,066 inland tank barges, 1,029 are owned by the Company and 37 are leased.

The fleet of 248 inland towboats ranges from 800 to 6,100 horsepower. Of the 248 inland towboats, 210 are owned by the Company and 38 are chartered. Towboats in the 800 to 2,100 horsepower classes provide power for barges used by the Canal and Linehaul fleets on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Houston Ship Channel. Towboats in the 1,400 to 3,200 horsepower classes provide power for both the River and Linehaul fleets on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River System. Towboats above 3,600 horsepower are typically used on the Mississippi River System to move River fleet unit tows and provide Linehaul fleet towing. Based on the capabilities of the individual towboats used in the Mississippi River System, the tows range in size from 10,000 to 30,000 tons.

Marine transportation services for inland movements are conducted under term contracts, which have contract terms of 12 months or longer, or spot contracts, which have contract terms of less than 12 months, with customers with whom the Company has traditionally had long-standing relationships. Typically, term contracts range from one to three years, some of which have renewal options.  During 2018, 2019, and 2020 approximately 65% of inland marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 35% were spot contract revenues.

All of the Company’s inland tank barges used in the transportation of bulk liquid products are of double hull construction and are capable of controlling vapor emissions during loading and discharging operations in compliance with occupational safety and health regulations and air quality regulations.

The Company has the ability to offer to its customers distribution capabilities throughout the Mississippi River System and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. Such capabilities offer economies of scale resulting from the ability to match tank barges, towboats, products and destinations efficiently to meet its customers’ requirements.

Through the Company’s proprietary vessel management computer system, the Company's barge and towboat fleet is dispatched from a centralized dispatch group. The towboats are equipped with cellular and satellite positioning and communication systems that automatically transmit the location of the towboat to the Company’s customer service department. Electronic orders are communicated to vessel personnel with reports of towing activities communicated electronically back to the customer service department. The electronic interface between the customer service department and the vessel enables matching of customer needs to barge capabilities, thereby promoting efficient utilization of the tank barge and towboat fleet. The Company’s customers are able to access information concerning the movement of their cargoes, including barge locations, through the Company’s website and proprietary electronic customer service portal.

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Kirby Inland Marine operates the largest commercial tank barge fleeting service (barge storage facilities) in numerous ports, including Houston, Corpus Christi, Freeport and Orange, Texas, Baton Rouge, Covington, Lake Charles and New Orleans, Louisiana, Mobile, Alabama, and Greenville, Mississippi. Included in the fleeting service is a shifting operation and fleeting service for dry cargo barges and tank barges on the Houston Ship Channel, in Freeport and Port Arthur, Texas, and Lake Charles, Louisiana. Kirby Inland Marine provides shifting and fleeting services for its own barges, as well as for customers and third party carriers, transferring barges within the areas noted, as well as fleeting barges.

Kirby Inland Marine also provides shore-based barge tankermen to the Company and third parties. Services to the Company and third parties cover the Gulf Coast, mid-Mississippi Valley, and the Ohio River Valley.

San Jac Marine, LLC (“San Jac”), a subsidiary of Kirby Inland Marine, owns and operates a shipyard in Channelview, Texas which builds marine vessels for both inland and coastal applications, and provide maintenance and repair services. Kirby Inland Marine also builds inland towboats and performs routine maintenance and repairs at the shipyard.

The Company owns a two-thirds interest in Osprey, which transports project cargoes and cargo containers by barge on the United States inland waterway system.

Coastal Operations. The segment’s coastal operations are conducted through wholly owned subsidiaries, Kirby Offshore Marine, LLC (“Kirby Offshore Marine”) and Kirby Ocean Transport Company (“Kirby Ocean Transport”).

Kirby Offshore Marine provides marine transportation of refined petroleum products, petrochemicals and black oil in coastal regions of the United States. The coastal operations consist of the Atlantic and Pacific Divisions.

The Atlantic Division primarily operates along the eastern seaboard of the United States and along the Gulf Coast. The Atlantic Division vessels call on various coastal ports from Maine to Texas, servicing refineries, storage terminals and power plants. The Atlantic Division also operates equipment, to a lesser extent, in the Eastern Canadian provinces. The tank barges operating in the Atlantic Division are in the 10,000 to 194,000 barrels capacity range and coastal tugboats in the 2,400 to 10,000 horsepower range, transporting primarily refined petroleum products, petrochemicals and black oil.

The Pacific Division primarily operates along the Pacific Coast of the United States, servicing refineries and storage terminals from Southern California to Washington State, throughout Alaska, including Cook Inlet, and from California to Hawaii. The Pacific Division’s fleet consists of tank barges in the 52,000 to 194,000 barrels capacity range and tugboats in the 1,000 to 11,000 horsepower range, transporting primarily refined petroleum products.

The Pacific Division services local petroleum retailers and oil companies distributing refined petroleum products and black oil between the Hawaiian Islands and provides other services to the local maritime community. The Hawaii fleet consists of tank barges in the 53,000 to 86,000 barrels capacity range and tugboats in the 1,000 to 5,000 horsepower range, transporting refined petroleum products for local and regional customers, black oil to power generation customers and delivering bunker fuel to ships. The Hawaii fleet also provides service docking, standby tug assistance and line handling to vessels using the single point mooring installation at Barbers Point, Oahu, Hawaii, a facility for large tankers to safely load and discharge their cargos through an offshore buoy and submerged pipeline without entering the port.

The coastal transportation of refined petroleum products and black oil is impacted by seasonality, partially dependent on the area of operations. Operations along the West Coast of the United States and in Alaska have been subject to more seasonal variations in demand than the operations along the East Coast and Gulf Coast regions of the United States. Seasonality generally does not impact the Hawaiian market. Movements of refined petroleum products such as various blends of gasoline are strongest during the summer driving season while heating oil generally increases during the winter months.

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The coastal fleet consists of 44 tank barges with 4.2 million barrels of capacity, primarily transporting refined petroleum products, black oil and petrochemicals. The Company owns 43 of the coastal tank barges and leases one barge. Of the 44 coastal tank barges currently operating, 31 are refined petroleum products and petrochemical barges and 13 are black oil barges. The Company operates 44 coastal tugboats ranging from 1,000 to 11,000 horsepower, of which 40 are owned by the Company and four are chartered.

Coastal marine transportation services are conducted under long-term contracts, primarily one year or longer, some of which have renewal options, for customers with which the Company has traditionally had long-standing relationships. During both 2018 and 2019, approximately 80% of the coastal marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 20% were spot contract revenues.  During 2020, approximately 85% of the coastal marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 15% were spot contract revenues.

Kirby Offshore Marine also operates a fleet of two offshore dry-bulk barge and tugboat units involved in the transportation of sugar and other dry products between Florida and East Coast ports. These vessels primarily operate under long-term contracts of affreightment.

Kirby Ocean Transport owns and operates a fleet of two offshore dry-bulk barges, two offshore tugboats and one docking tugboat. Kirby Ocean Transport operates primarily under term contracts of affreightment, including a contract that expires in 2022 with Duke Energy Florida (“DEF”) to transport coal across the Gulf of Mexico to DEF’s power generation facility at Crystal River, Florida.

Kirby Ocean Transport is also engaged in the transportation of coal, fertilizer, sugar and other bulk cargoes on a short-term basis between domestic ports and occasionally the transportation of grain from domestic ports to ports primarily in the Caribbean Basin.

Contracts and Customers

Marine transportation inland and coastal services are conducted under term or spot contracts for customers with whom the Company has traditionally had long-standing relationships. Typically, term contracts range from one to three years, some of which have renewal options. The majority of the marine transportation contracts with its customers are for terms of one year. Most have been customers of the Company’s marine transportation segment for many years and management anticipates continued relationships; however, there is no assurance that any individual contract will be renewed.

A term contract is an agreement with a specific customer to transport cargo from a designated origin to a designated destination at a set rate (affreightment) or at a daily rate (time charter). The rate may or may not include escalation provisions to recover changes in specific costs such as fuel. Time charters, which insulate the Company from revenue fluctuations caused by weather and navigational delays and temporary market declines, represented approximately 66% of the marine transportation’s inland revenues under term contracts during 2020, 62% of revenue under term contracts during 2019 and 59% of the revenue under term contracts during 2018. A spot contract is an agreement with a customer to move cargo from a specific origin to a designated destination for a rate negotiated at the time the cargo movement takes place. Spot contract rates are at the current “market” rate and are subject to market volatility. The Company typically maintains a higher mix of term contracts to spot contracts to provide the Company with a reasonably predictable revenue stream while maintaining spot market exposure to take advantage of new business opportunities and existing customers’ peak demands. During 2020, 2019, and 2018, approximately 65% of inland marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 35% were spot contract revenues. Coastal time charters represented approximately 90% of the marine transportation’s coastal revenues under term contracts in 2020 and approximately 85% of coastal revenues under term contracts in 2019 and 2018.

No single customer of the marine transportation segment accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s revenues in 2020, 2019, or 2018.

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Properties

The principal offices of Kirby Inland Marine, Kirby Offshore Marine, Kirby Ocean Transport and Osprey are located in Houston, Texas, in three facilities under leases that expire in July 2021, December 2025 and December 2027. Kirby Inland Marine’s operating locations are on the Mississippi River at Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, and Greenville, Mississippi, three locations in Houston, Texas, on or near the Houston Ship Channel, one in Miami, Florida, one in Gibson, Louisiana, one in Lake Charles, Louisiana, several properties in Westwego, Louisiana, one in Corpus Christi, Texas, and two in Orange, Texas. The New Orleans, Gibson, Westwego, Houston, and Orange facilities are owned by the Company, and the Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Lake Charles, Greenville, and Miami facilities are leased. Kirby Offshore Marine’s operating facilities are located in Staten Island, New York, Seattle, Washington and Honolulu, Hawaii. All of Kirby Offshore Marine’s operating facilities are leased, including piers and wharf facilities and office and warehouse space. San Jac’s operating location is near the Houston Ship Channel.

Governmental Regulations

General. The Company’s marine transportation operations are subject to regulation by the USCG, federal laws, state laws and certain international conventions. The agencies establish safety requirements and standards and are authorized to investigate incidents.

Most of the Company’s tank barges are inspected by the USCG and carry certificates of inspection. The Company’s inland and coastal towing vessels and coastal dry-bulk barges are also subject to USCG regulations. The USCG has enacted safety regulations governing the inspection, standards, and safety management systems of towing vessels. The regulations also create many new requirements for design, construction, equipment, and operation of towing vessels. The USCG regulations supersede the jurisdiction of the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) and any state regulations on vessel design, construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, operation, equipping, personnel qualifications and manning. The regulations requiring towing vessels to obtain a certificate of inspection became effective for existing towing vessels on July 20, 2018. Other portions of the regulations are phased in following the July 20, 2018 effective date through July 19, 2022.

All of the Company’s coastal tugboats and coastal tank and dry-bulk barges are built to American Bureau of Shipping (“ABS”) classification standards and/or statutory requirements by the USCG, and are inspected periodically by ABS and the USCG to maintain the vessels in class and compliant with all U.S. statutory requirements, as applicable to the vessel. The crews employed by the Company aboard inland and coastal vessels, including captains, pilots, engineers, tankermen and ordinary seamen, are licensed by the USCG.

The Company is required by various governmental agencies to obtain licenses, certificates and permits for its vessels depending upon such factors as the cargo transported, the waters in which the vessels operate and other factors. The Company believes that its vessels have obtained and can maintain all required licenses, certificates and permits required by such governmental agencies for the foreseeable future. The Company’s failure to maintain these authorizations could adversely impact its operations.

The Company believes that additional security and environmental related regulations relating to contingency planning requirements could be imposed on the marine industry. Generally, the Company endorses the anticipated additional regulations and believes it is currently operating to standards at least equal to anticipated additional regulations.

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Jones Act. The Jones Act is a federal cabotage law that restricts domestic marine transportation in the United States to vessels built and registered in the United States and manned, owned and operated by United States citizens. For a corporation to qualify as United States citizens for the purpose of domestic trade, it is to be 75% owned and controlled by United States citizens within the meaning of the Jones Act. The Company monitors citizenship and meets the requirements of the Jones Act for its owned and operated vessels.

Compliance with United States ownership requirements of the Jones Act is important to the operations of the Company, and a violation of the Jones Act could have a material negative effect on the Company and its vessels’ ability to operate. The Company monitors the citizenship of its employees and stockholders and complies with United States build requirements.

User Taxes. Federal legislation requires that inland marine transportation companies pay a user tax based on propulsion fuel used by vessels engaged in trade along the inland waterways that are maintained by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Such user taxes are designed to help defray the costs associated with replacing major components of the inland waterway system, such as locks and dams. A significant portion of the inland waterways on which the Company’s vessels operate is maintained by the Army Corps of Engineers.

The Company presently pays a federal fuel user tax of 29.1 cents per gallon consisting of a 0.1 cent per gallon leaking underground storage tank tax and 29 cents per gallon waterways user tax.

Security Requirements. The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 requires, among other things, submission to and approval by the USCG of vessel and waterfront facility security plans (“VSP” and “FSP”, respectively). The Company maintains approved VSP and FSP and is operating in compliance with the plans for all of its vessels and facilities that are subject to the requirements.

Environmental Regulations

The Company’s operations are affected by various regulations and legislation enacted for protection of the environment by the United States government, as well as many coastal and inland waterway states and international jurisdictions to the extent that the Company’s vessels transit in international waters. Government regulations require the Company to obtain permits, licenses and certificates for the operation of its vessels. Failure to maintain necessary permits or approvals could require the Company to incur costs or temporarily suspend operation of one or more of its vessels. Violations of these laws may result in civil and criminal penalties, fines, or other sanctions.

Water Pollution Regulations. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, as amended by the Clean Water Act of 1977 (“Clean Water Act”), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1981 (“CERCLA”) and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”) impose strict prohibitions against the discharge of oil and its derivatives or hazardous substances into the navigable waters of the United States. These acts impose civil and criminal penalties for any prohibited discharges and impose substantial strict liability for cleanup of these discharges and any associated damages. Certain states also have water pollution laws that prohibit discharges into waters that traverse the state or adjoin the state, and impose civil and criminal penalties and liabilities similar in nature to those imposed under federal laws.

The OPA and various state laws of similar intent substantially increased over historic levels the statutory liability of owners and operators of vessels for oil spills, both in terms of limit of liability and scope of damages.

One of the most important requirements under the OPA was that all newly constructed tank barges engaged in the transportation of oil and petroleum in the United States be double hulled, and all existing single hull tank barges be either retrofitted with double hulls or phased out of domestic service by December 31, 2014.

The Company manages its exposure to losses from potential discharges of pollutants through the use of well-maintained and equipped vessels, through safety, training and environmental programs, and through the Company’s insurance program. There can be no assurance, however, that any new regulations or requirements or any discharge of pollutants by the Company will not have an adverse effect on the Company.

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Clean Water Act. The Clean Water Act establishes the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (“NPDES”) permitting program which regulates discharges into navigable waters of the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) regulates the discharge of ballast water and other substances in United States waters under the Clean Water Act. Pursuant to the NPDES program, effective February 6, 2009, the EPA issued regulations requiring vessels 79 feet in length or longer to comply with a Vessel General Permit authorizing ballast water discharges and other discharges incidental to the operation of the vessels. The EPA regulations also imposed technology and water quality based effluent limits for certain types of discharges and established specific inspection, monitoring, recordkeeping and reporting requirements for vessels to ensure effluent limitations are met. The Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (“VIDA”), signed into law on December 4, 2018, established a new framework for the regulation of vessel incidental discharges under the Clean Water Act. VIDA requires the EPA to develop national performance standards for those discharges within two years of enactment and requires the USCG to develop implementation, compliance, and enforcement regulations within two years of the EPA’s promulgation of standards. Under VIDA, all provisions of the Vessel General Permit which became effective December 19, 2013, remain in force and effect until the USCG regulations are finalized. The Company maintains Vessel General Permits and has established recordkeeping and reporting procedures in compliance with the EPA's interim requirements.

The USCG adopted regulations on ballast water management treatment systems establishing a standard for the allowable concentration of living organisms in certain vessel ballast water discharged in waters of the United States under the National Invasive Species Act. The regulations include requirements for the installation of engineering equipment to treat ballast water by establishing an approval process for ballast water management systems (“BWMS”). The BWMS implementation was suspended until December 2016 at which time the USCG approved manufacturers’ systems that met the regulatory discharge standard equivalent to the International Maritime Organization’s D-2 standard. The phase-in schedule for those existing vessels requiring a system to install a BWMS is dependent on vessel build date, ballast water capacity, and drydock schedule. Compliance with the ballast water treatment regulations requires the installation of equipment on some of the Company’s vessels to treat ballast water before it is discharged. The installation of BWMS equipment will require significant capital expenditures at the next scheduled drydocking to complete the installation of the approved system on those existing vessels that require a system in order to comply with the BWMS regulations.

Financial Responsibility Requirement. Commencing with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, as amended, vessels over 300 gross tons operating in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States have been required to maintain evidence of financial ability to satisfy statutory liabilities for oil and hazardous substance water pollution. This evidence is in the form of a Certificate of Financial Responsibility (“COFR”) issued by the USCG. The majority of the Company’s tank barges are subject to this COFR requirement, and the Company has fully complied with this requirement since its inception. The Company does not foresee any current or future difficulty in maintaining the COFR certificates under current rules.

Clean Air Regulations. The Federal Clean Air Act of 1979 (“CAA”) requires states to draft State Implementation Plans (“SIPs”) under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards designed to reduce atmospheric pollution for six common air pollutants to levels mandated by this act. The EPA designates areas in the United States as meeting or not meeting the standards. Several SIPs implement the regulation of barge loading and discharging emissions at waterfront facilities as a measure to meet the CAA standard. The implementation of these regulations requires a reduction of hydrocarbon emissions released into the atmosphere during the loading of most petroleum products and the degassing and cleaning of barges for maintenance or change of cargo. These regulations require vessel operators that operate in states with areas of nonattainment of air quality standards under the CAA to install vapor control equipment on their barges. The Company expects that future emission regulations will be developed and will apply this same technology to many chemicals that are handled by barge. Most of the Company’s barges engaged in the transportation of petrochemicals, chemicals and refined petroleum products are already equipped with vapor control systems. Although a risk exists that new regulations could require significant capital expenditures by the Company and otherwise increase the Company’s costs, the Company believes that, based upon the regulations that have been proposed thus far, no material capital expenditures beyond those currently contemplated by the Company and no material increase in costs are likely to be required.

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Contingency Plan Requirement. The OPA and several state statutes of similar intent require the majority of the vessels and terminals operated by the Company to maintain approved oil spill contingency plans as a condition of operation. The Company has approved plans that comply with these requirements. The OPA also requires development of regulations for hazardous substance spill contingency plans. The USCG has not yet promulgated these regulations; however, the Company anticipates that they will not be more difficult to comply with than the oil spill plans.

Occupational Health Regulations. The Company’s inspected vessel operations are primarily regulated by the USCG for occupational health standards. Uninspected vessel operations and the Company’s shore-based personnel are subject to OSHA regulations. The Company believes that it is in compliance with the provisions of the regulations that have been adopted and does not believe that the adoption of any further regulations will impose additional material requirements on the Company. There can be no assurance, however, that claims will not be made against the Company for work related illness or injury, or that the further adoption of health regulations will not adversely affect the Company.

Insurance. The Company’s marine transportation operations are subject to the hazards associated with operating vessels carrying large volumes of bulk cargo in a marine environment. These hazards include the risk of loss of or damage to the Company’s vessels, damage to third parties as a result of collision, fire or explosion, adverse weather conditions, loss or contamination of cargo, personal injury of employees and third parties, and pollution and other environmental damages. The Company maintains hull, liability, general liability, workers compensation and pollution liability insurance coverage against these hazards. For shipyard operations, the Company has ship repairer’s liability and builder’s risk insurance. The Company uses a Texas domiciled wholly owned insurance subsidiary, Adaptive KRM, LLC, to provide cost effective risk transfer options to insure certain exposures of the Company and certain of its subsidiaries in its marine transportation and distribution and services segments.  The Company also maintains insurance in the commercial insurance market to address liabilities arising in connection with its distribution and services segment.

Environmental Protection. The Company has a number of programs that were implemented to further its commitment to environmental responsibility in its operations. In addition to internal environmental audits, one such program is environmental audits of barge cleaning vendors principally directed at management of cargo residues and barge cleaning wastes. Another is the participation by the Company in the American Waterways Operators Responsible Carrier program which is oriented towards continuously reducing the barge industry’s impact on the environment, including the distribution services area.

Safety. The Company manages its exposure to the hazards associated with its business through safety, training and preventive maintenance efforts. The Company emphasizes its safety commitment through programs oriented toward extensive monitoring of safety performance for the purpose of identifying trends and initiating corrective action, and for continuously improving employee safety behavior and performance.

Training. The Company believes that among the major elements of a successful and productive work force are effective training programs. The Company also believes that training in the proper performance of a job enhances both the safety and quality of the service provided. New technology, regulatory compliance, personnel safety, quality and environmental concerns create additional demands for training. Refer to Human Capital below for further discussion regarding training programs the Company has developed and instituted.

Quality. Kirby Inland Marine has made a substantial commitment to the implementation, maintenance, and improvement of quality assurance systems. Kirby Offshore Marine is certified under ABS ISM standards. These Quality Assurance Systems and certification have enabled both shore and vessel personnel to effectively manage the changes which occur in the working environment, as well as enhancing the Company’s safety and environmental performance.

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DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICES

The Company, through its wholly owned subsidiary Kirby Distribution & Services, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries Kirby Engine Systems LLC, (“Kirby Engine Systems”), Stewart & Stevenson LLC (“S&S”) and United Holdings LLC (“United”), and through Kirby Engine Systems’ wholly owned subsidiaries Marine Systems, Inc. (“Marine Systems”) and Engine Systems, Inc. (“Engine Systems”), serves two markets, commercial and industrial, and oil and gas. The Company sells genuine replacement parts, provides service mechanics to overhaul and repair engines, transmissions, reduction gears and related oilfield service equipment, rebuilds component parts or entire diesel engines, transmissions and reduction gears, and related equipment used in oilfield services, marine, power generation, on-highway, and other commercial and industrial applications. The Company manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, for North American as well as for international oilfield service companies, and oil and gas operator and producer markets. The Company also sells engines, transmissions, power generation systems, and rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, railcar movers, and high capacity lift trucks for use in a variety of commercial and industrial markets.

For the commercial and industrial market, the Company sells Original Equipment Manufacturers (“OEM”) replacement parts and new diesel engines, provides service mechanics and maintains facilities to overhaul and repair diesel engines and ancillary products for marine and on-highway transportation companies, and industrial companies. The Company provides engineering and field services, OEM replacement parts and safety-related products to power generation operators and to the nuclear industry, manufactures engine generator and pump packages for power generation operators and municipalities, offers power generation systems customized for specific commercial and industrial applications, and rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, railcar movers, and high capacity lift trucks for use in a variety of industrial markets.

For the oil and gas market, the Company sells OEM replacement parts, sells and services diesel engines, pumps and transmissions, manufactures and remanufactures pressure pumping units, and manufactures cementing and pumping equipment as well as coil tubing and well intervention equipment. Customers include oilfield service companies, and oil and gas operators and producers.

No single customer of the distribution and services segment accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s revenues in 2020, 2019, or 2018. The distribution and services segment also provides service to the Company’s marine transportation segment, which accounted for approximately 3% of the distribution and services segment’s 2020 revenues and 2% of the segment’s 2019 and 2018 revenues. Such revenues are eliminated in consolidation and not included in the table below.

The following table sets forth the revenues for the distribution and services segment (dollars in thousands):

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2020
   
%
   
2019
   
%
   
2018
   
%
 
Service and parts
 
$
711,051
     
93
%
 
$
939,246
     
75
%
 
$
1,059,270
     
71
%
Manufacturing
   
56,092
     
7
     
312,071
     
25
     
428,284
     
29
 
   
$
767,143
     
100
%
 
$
1,251,317
     
100
%
 
$
1,487,554
     
100
%

Commercial and Industrial Operations

The Company serves the marine, on-highway, power generation, and other commercial and industrial markets primarily in the United States. The commercial and industrial operations represented approximately 74% of the segment’s 2020 revenues.

The Company is engaged in the overhaul and repair of medium-speed and high-speed marine diesel engines and reduction gears, line boring, block welding services and related parts sales for customers in the marine industry. Medium-speed diesel engines have an engine speed of 400 to 1,000 revolutions per minute (“RPM”) with a horsepower range of 800 to 32,000. High-speed diesel engines have an engine speed of over 1,000 RPM and a horsepower range of 50 to 8,375. The Company services medium-speed and high-speed diesel engines utilized in the inland and offshore barge industries. It also services marine equipment and offshore drilling equipment used in the offshore petroleum exploration and oilfield service industry, marine equipment used in the offshore commercial fishing industry, harbor docking vessels, commercial ferries, vessels owned by the United States government and large pleasure crafts.

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The Company has marine repair operations throughout the United States providing in-house and in-field repair capabilities and related parts sales. The Company’s emphasis is on service to its customers, and it sends its crews from any of its locations to service customers’ equipment anywhere in the world. The medium-speed operations are located in Houma, Louisiana, Houston, Texas, Chesapeake, Virginia, Paducah, Kentucky, Seattle, Washington and Tampa, Florida, serving as the authorized distributor for EMD Power Products (“EMD”) throughout the United States. The Company is also a distributor and representative for certain Alfa Laval products in the Midwest and on the East Coast, Gulf Coast, and West Coast. All of the marine locations are authorized distributors for Falk Corporation reduction gears and Oil States Industries, Inc. clutches. The Chesapeake, Virginia operation concentrates on East Coast inland and offshore dry-bulk, tank barge and harbor docking operators, and the United States government. The Houma, Louisiana and Houston, Texas operations concentrate on the inland and offshore barge and oilfield services industries. The Tampa, Florida operation concentrates on Gulf of Mexico offshore dry-bulk, tank barge and harbor docking operators. The Paducah, Kentucky operation concentrates on the inland river towboat and barge operators and the Great Lakes carriers. The Seattle, Washington operation concentrates on the offshore commercial fishing industry, the offshore barge industry, the United States government, and other customers in Alaska, Hawaii and the Pacific Rim.

The high-speed marine operations are located in Houston, Texas, Houma, Baton Rouge, Belle Chasse and New Iberia, Louisiana, Paducah, Kentucky, Mobile, Alabama, Lodi and Thorofare, New Jersey, and 10 locations in Florida. The Company serves as a factory-authorized marine dealer for Caterpillar diesel engines in multiple states. The Company also operates factory-authorized full service marine distributorships/dealerships for Cummins, Detroit Diesel, John Deere, MTU and Volvo Penta diesel engines, as well as Falk, Lufkin and Twin Disc marine gears. High-speed diesel engines provide the main propulsion for a significant amount of the United States flagged commercial vessels and large pleasure craft vessels, other marine applications, including engines for power generators and barge pumps.

The Company distributes, sells parts for and services diesel engines and transmissions for on-highway use and provides in-house and in-field service capabilities. The Company is the largest on-highway distributor for Allison Transmission and Detroit Diesel/Daimler Truck North America, providing parts, service and warranty on engines, transmissions and related equipment in Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, and the country of Colombia. The Company also provides similar service for off-highway use and additionally has distributor rights for Deutz and Isuzu diesel engines. Off-highway applications are primarily surface and underground mining equipment, including loaders, crawlers, crushers, power screens, pumps, cranes, generators, and haul trucks, as well as equipment rental.

The Company is engaged in the overhaul and repair of diesel engines and generators, and related parts sales for power generation customers. The Company is also engaged in the sale and distribution of diesel engine parts, engine modifications, generator modifications, controls, governors and diesel generator packages to the nuclear industry. The Company services users of diesel engines that provide emergency standby, peak and base load power generation. The Company also sells power generation systems that are customized for specific applications and the rental of power generation systems.

The Company has power generation operations throughout the United States providing in-house and in-field repair capabilities and products for power generation applications. Through its Rocky Mount, North Carolina operation, the Company serves as the exclusive worldwide distributor of EMD products to the nuclear industry, the worldwide distributor for Woodward, Inc. products to the nuclear industry, the worldwide distributor of Cooper Machinery Services (“Cooper”) products to the nuclear industry, and owns the assets and technology necessary to support the Nordberg medium-speed diesel engines used in nuclear applications. In addition, the Rocky Mount operation is an exclusive distributor for Norlake Manufacturing Company transformer products to the nuclear industry, an exclusive distributor of Hannon Company generator and motor products to the nuclear industry, and a non-exclusive distributor of analog Weschler Instruments metering products and an exclusive distributor of digital Weschler metering products to the nuclear industry. The Company is also a non-exclusive distributor of Ingersoll Rand air start equipment to the nuclear industry worldwide.

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The Company sells pre-packaged and fabricated power generation systems for emergency, standby and auxiliary power for commercial and industrial applications. The Company also offers rental generator systems from MTU, Atlas Copco, and Multiquip from 50 to 2,000 kilowatts of power to a broad range of customers. The Company also is engaged in the rental of industrial compressors, railcar movers and high capacity lift trucks. In addition, the Company provides accessory products such as cables, hoses, fuel cells, air dryers, air compressor boosters and ground heaters. Lastly, the Company is a dealer for Thermo King refrigeration systems for trucks, railroad cars and other land transportation markets in Texas and Colorado.

Commercial and Industrial Customers

The results of the distribution and services industry are largely tied to the industries it serves and, therefore, are influenced by the cycles of such industries. The Company’s major marine customers include inland and offshore barge operators, oilfield service companies, offshore fishing companies, other marine transportation entities, the United States government and large pleasure crafts. Since the marine business is linked to the relative health of the inland towboat, offshore and coastal tugboat, harbor docking tugboat, offshore oilfield service, oil and gas drilling, offshore commercial fishing industries, Great Lakes ore vessels, dredging vessels, coastal ferries, United States government vessels and the pleasure craft industry, there is no assurance that its present gross revenues can be maintained in the future.

The Company’s on-highway customers are long-haul and short-haul trucking companies, commercial and industrial companies with truck fleets, buses owned by municipalities and private companies. Off-highway companies include surface and underground mining operations with a large variety of equipment.

The Company’s power generation customers are domestic utilities and the worldwide nuclear power industry, municipalities, universities, medical facilities, data centers, petrochemical plants, manufacturing facilities, shopping malls, office complexes, residential and other industrial users.

The Company’s rental customers are primarily commercial and industrial companies, and residential customers with short-term rental requirements.

Commercial and Industrial Competitive Conditions

The Company’s primary marine competitors are independent distribution and services companies and other factory-authorized distributors, authorized service centers and authorized marine dealers. Certain operators of diesel powered marine equipment also elect to maintain in-house service capabilities. While price is a major determinant in the competitive process, reputation, consistent quality, expeditious service, experienced personnel, access to parts inventories and market presence are also significant factors. A substantial portion of the Company’s business is obtained by competitive bids. However, the Company has entered into service agreements with certain operators of diesel powered marine equipment, providing such operators with one source of support and service for all of their requirements at pre-negotiated prices.

The Company is one of a limited number of authorized resellers of EMD, Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, John Deere, MTU and Volvo Penta parts. The Company is also the marine distributor for Falk, Lufkin and Twin Disc reduction gears throughout the United States.

The Company’s primary power generation competitors are other independent diesel service companies and manufacturers. While price is a major determinant in the competitive process, reputation, consistent quality, expeditious service, experienced personnel, access to parts inventories and market presence are also significant factors. A substantial portion of the Company’s business is obtained by competitive bids.

As noted above, the Company is the exclusive worldwide distributor of EMD, Cooper, Woodward, Nordberg, Norlake and Hannon parts for the nuclear industry, and non-exclusive distributor of Weschler parts and Ingersoll Rand air start equipment for the nuclear industry. Specific regulations relating to equipment used in nuclear power generation require extensive testing and certification of replacement parts. OEM parts need to be properly tested and certified for nuclear applications.

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Oil and Gas Operations

The Company is engaged in the distribution and service of high-speed diesel engines, pumps and transmissions, and the manufacture and remanufacture of oilfield service equipment. The oil and gas operations represented approximately 26% of the segment’s 2020 revenues. The Company offers custom fabricated oilfield service equipment, fully tested and field ready. The Company manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, nitrogen pumping units, cementers, hydration equipment, mud pumps and blenders, coil tubing, and well intervention equipment. The Company sells OEM replacement parts, and sells and services diesel engines, pumps and transmissions, and offers in-house and in-field service capabilities. The Company is the largest off-highway distributor for Allison Transmission and a major distributor for MTU in North America.

The Company’s manufacturing and remanufacturing facilities and service facilities are based in Houston, Texas and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, key oil and gas producing regions.

Oil and Gas Customers

The Company’s major oil and gas customers include large and mid-cap oilfield service providers, oil and gas operators and producers. The Company has long standing relationships with most of its customers. Since the oil and gas business is linked to the oilfield services industry, and oil and gas operators and producers, there is no assurance that its present gross revenues can be maintained in the future. The results of the Company’s oil and gas distribution and services operations are largely tied to the industries it serves and, therefore, are influenced by the cycles of such industries.

Oil and Gas Competitive Conditions

The Company’s primary competitors are other oilfield equipment manufacturers and remanufacturers, and equipment service companies. While price is a major determinant in the competitive process, equipment availability, reputation, consistent quality, expeditious service, experienced personnel, access to parts inventories and market presence are also significant factors. A substantial portion of the Company’s business is obtained by competitive bids.

Properties

The principal office of the distribution and services segment is located in Houston, Texas. There are 61 active facilities in the distribution and services segment, of which 25 facilities are owned and 36 facilities are leased.

The oil and gas operation’s principal manufacturing facilities are located in Houston, Texas and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with both facilities owned by the Company. The oil and gas focused operations have 17 parts and service facilities, with one in Arkansas, two in Colorado, three in Louisiana, one in New Mexico, one in Oklahoma, eight in Texas and one in Wyoming, with many of these facilities shared with the commercial and industrial operations.

The commercial and industrial businesses operate 42 parts and service facilities, with one facility in Alabama, one in Connecticut, one in Colorado, 11 in Florida, one in Kentucky, two in Louisiana, one in Massachusetts, one in Oklahoma, three in New Jersey, one in New York, one in North Carolina, 11 in Texas, one in Virginia, one in Washington and five facilities located in Colombia, South America.

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Human Capital

Employment. The Company has approximately 5,400 employees, the large majority of whom are in the United States. The Company has approximately 150 general corporate employees.

The Company’s marine transportation segment has approximately 3,400 employees, of which approximately 2,700 are vessel crew members. None of the segment’s inland operations are subject to collective bargaining agreements. The segment’s coastal operations include approximately 600 vessel employees some of which are subject to collective bargaining agreements in certain geographic areas. Approximately 250 Kirby Offshore Marine vessel crew members employed in the Atlantic Division are subject to a collective bargaining agreement with the Richmond Terrace Bargaining Unit in effect through August 31, 2022. In addition, approximately 125 vessel crew members of Penn Maritime Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Kirby Offshore Marine, are represented by the Seafarers International Union under a collective bargaining agreement in effect through April 30, 2022.

The Company’s distribution and services segment has approximately 1,850 employees. None of the United Holdings and Kirby Engine Systems operations are subject to collective bargaining agreements. Approximately 55 S&S employees in New Jersey are subject to a collective bargaining agreement with the Local 15C, International Union of Operating Engineers, AFL-CIO that expires in October 2023. The remaining S&S employees are not subject to collective bargaining agreements.

Training, Development, and Promotions.  Centralized training is provided through the Operations Personnel and Training Department, which is charged with developing, conducting and maintaining training programs for the benefit of all of the Company’s operating entities. It is also responsible for ensuring that training programs are both consistent and effective. For the marine business, the Company’s training facility includes state-of-the-art equipment and instruction aids, including a full bridge wheelhouse simulator, a working towboat, two tank barges and a tank barge simulator for tankermen training. During 2020, approximately 1,000 certificates were issued for the completion of courses at the training facility, of which approximately 300 were USCG approved classes and the balance were employee development and Company required classes, including leadership, communication and navigation courses. The Company uses the Seaman’s Church Institute as an additional training resource for its wheelhouse crewmembers.  The marine segment provides a clear career progression for vessel personnel from entry level deckhand to captain and regularly reviews promotions from one level to another.

In distribution and services, Company facilitates training courses via online courses and instructor-led classes that cover a range of skill related topics generator knowledge, introduction to hydraulic systems, introduction to electrical diagrams, introduction to transformers, and Electrical Generation Systems Association journeyman study, as well as numerous courses led by our OEM partners.  The distribution and services segment has multiple career progressions within its numerous job groups.

In addition, the Company facilitates a number of training courses that cover a range of topics that increase skill sets, increase productivity, and educate employees about safety and enhance team morale across both business segments.  Training classes include environmental, health, and safety classes, legal compliance classes and skills related courses.  Environmental, health, and safety topics include defensive and distracted driving, first aid basic and medical emergencies, global safety principles, oil management, and hazardous substances training.  Legal compliance topics include anti-corruption training, cybersecurity awareness, business ethics, compliance, and promoting diversity. Skill related topics include business writing, risk-based thinking, initiating and planning a project, and transitioning into a project management role.

Succession Planning. Succession planning is a key responsibility of the CEO and Chief Human Resources Officer. While the process is ongoing all year succession planning is reported annually to the Board of Directors.  Succession plans address all senior executive positions to ensure smooth transition and to facilitate ongoing conversations related to promotion, and diversity and to address any potential talent gaps.

Culture and Engagement.  The Company recognizes the importance of employee engagement and inclusion and has implemented a regular process of surveying its employees to obtain their feedback on both what is working well and areas of improvement.  The main take-aways from the initial survey was that Company employees are committed to safety, understand the Company’s strategic direction, and believe the Company’s overall focus is on the customer.  Employees voiced their desire to see more opportunity for community involvement and communication from senior management.  This feedback led to specific initiatives including an increased use of town halls both in person and virtual and the establishment of an employee led community involvement committee for 2021. Another initiative developed following the Company’s culture survey was the development of the Company’s core values. The core values are a product of a cross functional team that used the employee responses from the culture survey to reflect the common values of the Company. The core values are principles that are communicated and owned throughout the organization.  

Diversity.  The Company has a diversity committee whose purpose is to continuously improve its diversity of employees.  In 2019 and 2020, committee initiatives included training to help increase awareness and drive inclusive behaviors, identifying areas for improvement and providing oversight for hiring, promotions and mentoring as needed.

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Information about the Company’s Executive Officers

The executive officers of the Company are as follows:

Name
 
Age
 
Positions and Offices
David W. Grzebinski
 
59
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
William G. Harvey
 
63
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Christian G. O’Neil
 
48
 
President – Kirby Inland Marine, Kirby Offshore Marine, and San Jac Marine, LLC
Joseph H. Reniers
 
46
 
President – Kirby Distribution & Services, Inc.
Dorman L. Strahan
 
64
 
President – Kirby Engine Systems
Kim B. Clarke
 
65
 
Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer
Ronald A. Dragg
 
57
 
Vice President, Controller and Assistant Secretary
Eric S. Holcomb
 
46
 
Vice President – Investor Relations
Amy D. Husted
 
52
 
Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Scott P. Miller
 
42
 
Vice President and Chief Information Officer
Kurt A. Niemietz
 
48
 
Vice President and Treasurer
William M. Woodruff
 
60
 
Vice President – Public and Governmental Affairs

No family relationship exists among the executive officers or among the executive officers and the directors. Officers are elected to hold office until the annual meeting of directors, which immediately follows the annual meeting of stockholders, or until their respective successors are elected and have qualified.

David W. Grzebinski is a Chartered Financial Analyst and holds a Master of Business Administration degree from Tulane University and a degree in chemical engineering from the University of South Florida. He has served as President and Chief Executive Officer since April 2014. He served as President and Chief Operating Officer from January 2014 to April 2014 and as Chief Financial Officer from March 2010 to April 2014. He served as Chairman of Kirby Offshore Marine from February 2012 to April 2013 and served as Executive Vice President from March 2010 to January 2014. Prior to joining the Company in February 2010, he served in various operational and financial positions since 1988 with FMC Technologies Inc. (“FMC”), including Controller, Energy Services, Treasurer, and Director of Global SAP and Industry Relations. Prior to joining FMC, he was employed by Dow Chemical Company in manufacturing, engineering and financial roles.

William G. Harvey is a Chartered Financial Analyst and holds a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Toronto and a degree in mechanical engineering from Queens University. He has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since February 2018.  He served as Executive Vice President – Finance from January 2018 to February 2018. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Harvey served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Walter Energy, Inc. from 2012 to 2017, Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Resolute Forest Products Inc. (“Resolute”) from 2008 to 2011, and as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Bowater Inc., a predecessor company of Resolute, from 2004 to 2008.

Christian G. O’Neil holds a Master of Business Administration degree from Rice University, a doctorate of jurisprudence from Tulane University and a bachelor of arts degree from Southern Methodist University. He has served as President of Kirby Inland Marine and Kirby Offshore Marine since January 2018 and as President of San Jac Marine, LLC since October 2018. He served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Kirby Inland Marine and Kirby Offshore Marine from May 2016 to January 2018. He also served as Executive Vice President – Commercial Operations of Kirby Inland Marine and Kirby Offshore Marine from April 2014 to May 2016, Vice President – Human Resources of the Company from May 2012 to April 2014, Vice President – Sales for Kirby Inland Marine from 2009 to 2012 and President of Osprey from 2006 through 2008. He has also served in various sales and business development roles at the Company and Osprey. Prior to joining the Company, he served as Sales Manager and Fleet Manager at Hollywood Marine, Inc. (“Hollywood Marine”) after joining Hollywood Marine in 1997 which was subsequently merged into the predecessor of Kirby Inland Marine.

Joseph H. Reniers holds a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and a degree in mechanical engineering from the United States Naval Academy. He has served the Company as President – Kirby Distribution & Services, Inc. since September 2017. He served as Executive Vice President – Diesel Engine Services and Supply Chain from May 2016 to September 2017, Senior Vice President – Diesel Engine Services and Marine Facility Operations from February 2015 to May 2016, Vice President – Strategy and Operational Service from April 2014 to February 2015, Vice President – Supply Chain from April 2012 to April 2014 and Vice President – Human Resources from March 2010 to April 2012. Prior to joining the Company, he was a management consultant with McKinsey & Company serving a wide variety of industrial clients. Prior to joining McKinsey, he served as a nuclear power officer in the Navy.

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Dorman L. Strahan attended Nicholls State University and has served the Company as President of Kirby Engine Systems since May 1999, President of Marine Systems since 1986 and President of Engine Systems since 1996. After joining the Company in 1982 in connection with the acquisition of Marine Systems, he served as Vice President of Marine Systems until 1985.

Kim B. Clarke holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Houston. She has served as Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer since October 2017. She served as Vice President – Human Resources from December 2016 to October 2017. Prior to joining the Company, she served in senior leadership roles in human resources, safety, information technology and business development as Senior Vice President and Chief Administration Officer for Key Energy Services, Inc. from 2004 to March 2016.

Ronald A. Dragg is a Certified Public Accountant and holds a Master of Science in Accountancy degree from the University of Houston and a degree in finance from Texas A&M University. He has served the Company as Vice President, Controller and Assistant Secretary since April 2014. He also served as Vice President and Controller from January 2007 to April 2014, as Controller from November 2002 to January 2007, Controller – Financial Reporting from January 1999 to October 2002, and Assistant Controller – Financial Reporting from October 1996 to December 1998. Prior to joining the Company, he was employed by Baker Hughes Incorporated.

Eric S. Holcomb is a Certified Public Accountant and holds a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in accounting from Southern Methodist University. He has served the Company as Vice President – Investor Relations since December 2017. Prior to joining the Company, he was employed by Baker Hughes Incorporated from 2003 to December 2017 serving in various roles including Investor Relations Director, Finance Director for North America Land, Finance Director for North America Offshore and Finance Director for Canada.

Amy D. Husted holds a doctorate of jurisprudence from South Texas College of Law and a Bachelor of Science degree in political science from the University of Houston. She has served the Company as Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since April 2019.  She also served as Vice President and General Counsel from January 2017 to April 2019, Vice President – Legal from January 2008 to January 2017 and Corporate Counsel from November 1999 through December 2007. Prior to joining the Company, she served as Corporate Counsel of Hollywood Marine from 1996 to 1999 after joining Hollywood Marine in 1994.

Scott P. Miller holds a Bachelor of Science in Management of Information Systems from Louisiana State University and a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Houston.  He has served as Vice President and Chief Information Officer since April 2019.  Prior to joining the Company, he was employed by Key Energy Services, Inc. from May 2006 to March 2019, serving in various senior leadership roles including Managing Director of Strategy, Vice President and Chief Information Officer from March 2013 to December 2015 and as Senior Vice President, Operations Services and Chief Administrative Officer from January 2016 to March 2019.

Kurt A. Niemietz holds a Master of Business Administration degree from St. Mary’s University and a degree in accounting from the University of Texas at San Antonio. He has served as Vice President and Treasurer since April 2019.  Prior to joining the Company, he was employed by Pacific Drilling from 2013 to 2019, serving in various roles of increasing responsibility, including Treasurer from 2017 to 2019, and in various financial positions with FMC, from 2006 to 2013. Prior to joining FMC, he was employed by Austin, Calvert & Flavin as a buy-side equity analyst.

William M. Woodruff holds a doctorate of jurisprudence from the University of Houston Law Center and a bachelor of science degree from Texas A&M University. He has served as Vice President – Public and Governmental Affairs since October 2017. He served as Director – Public & Government Affairs from 2014 to October 2017 after joining the Company as Director – Government Affairs in 2004. Prior to joining the Company, he was a maritime lawyer in private practice and Vice President and General Counsel of Coastal Towing, Inc.

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Item 1A.
Risk Factors

The following risk factors should be considered carefully when evaluating the Company, as its businesses, results of operations, or financial condition could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The following discussion does not attempt to cover factors, such as trends in the United States and global economies or the level of interest rates, among others, that are likely to affect most businesses.

Marine Transportation Segment Risk Factors

The Inland Waterway infrastructure is aging and may result in increased costs and disruptions to the Company’s marine transportation segment. Maintenance of the United States inland waterway system is vital to the Company’s operations. The system is composed of over 12,000 miles of commercially navigable waterway, supported by over 240 locks and dams designed to provide flood control, maintain pool levels of water in certain areas of the country and facilitate navigation on the inland river system. The United States inland waterway infrastructure is aging, with more than half of the locks over 50 years old. As a result, due to the age of the locks, scheduled and unscheduled maintenance outages may be more frequent in nature, resulting in delays and additional operating expenses. One-half of the cost of new construction and major rehabilitation of locks and dams is paid by marine transportation companies through a 29 cent per gallon diesel fuel tax and the remaining 50% of waterway infrastructure and improvement is paid from general federal tax revenues. Failure of the federal government to adequately fund infrastructure maintenance and improvements in the future would have a negative impact on the Company’s ability to deliver products for its customers on a timely basis. In addition, any additional user taxes that may be imposed in the future to fund infrastructure improvements would increase the Company’s operating expenses.

The Company could be adversely impacted by a marine accident or spill event. A marine accident or spill event could close a portion of the inland waterway system or a coastal area of the United States for an extended period of time. Although statistically marine transportation is the safest means of surface transportation of bulk commodities, accidents do occur, both involving Company equipment and equipment owned by other marine operators.

The Company transports a wide variety of petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, coastwise along all three United States coasts and in Alaska and Hawaii. The Company manages its exposure to losses from potential unauthorized discharges of pollutants through the use of well-maintained and equipped tank barges and towing vessels, through safety, training and environmental programs, and through the Company’s insurance program, but a discharge of pollutants by the Company could have an adverse effect on the Company. Risks may arise for which the Company may not be insured. Claims covered by insurance are subject to deductibles, the aggregate amount of which could be material, and certain policies impose limitations on coverage. Existing insurance coverage may not be able to be renewed at commercially reasonable rates or coverage capacity for certain risks may not be available or adequate to cover future claims. If a loss occurs that is partially or completely uninsured, or the carrier is unable or unwilling to cover the claim, the Company could be exposed to liability.

The Company’s marine transportation segment is dependent on its ability to adequately crew its towing vessels. The Company’s vessels are crewed with employees who are licensed or certified by the USCG, including its captains, pilots, engineers and tankermen. The success of the Company’s marine transportation segment is dependent on the Company’s ability to adequately crew its vessels. As a result, the Company invests significant resources in training its crews and providing crew members an opportunity to advance from a deckhand to the captain of a Company towboat or tugboat. Inland crew members generally work rotations such as 20 days on, 10 days off rotation, or a 30 days on, 15 days off rotation. For the coastal fleet, crew members are generally required to work rotations such as 14 days on, 14 days off rotation, a 21 days on, 21 days off rotation or a 30 days on, 30 days off rotation, dependent upon the location. The nature of crewmember work schedules and assignments away from home for extended periods require special recruiting and at times it can be difficult to find candidates. With ongoing retirements and competitive labor pressure in the marine transportation segment, the Company continues to monitor and implement market competitive pay practices. The Company also utilizes an internal development program to train Maritime Academy graduates for vessel leadership positions.

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The Company’s marine transportation segment has approximately 3,400 employees, of which approximately 2,700 are vessel crew members. None of the segment’s inland operations are subject to collective bargaining agreements. The segment’s coastal operations include approximately 600 vessel employees, of whom approximately 375 are subject to collective bargaining agreements in certain geographic areas. Any work stoppages or labor disputes could adversely affect coastal operations in those areas. To date, the Company has been able to manage crewing of its vessels despite the COVID-19 pandemic, with only minimal vessel delays and disruption of services, but with some loss of revenue which have primarily impacted our offshore vessels.  The Company continues to update its processes relating to management of COVID-19 and provide related employee education as new information and guidance becomes available.

The Company’s marine transportation segment is subject to the Jones Act. The Company’s marine transportation segment competes principally in markets subject to the Jones Act, a federal cabotage law that restricts domestic marine transportation in the United States to vessels built and registered in the United States, and manned, owned and operated by United States citizens. The Company presently meets all of the requirements of the Jones Act for its owned and operated vessels. The loss of Jones Act status could have a significant negative effect on the Company. The requirements that the Company’s vessels be United States built and manned by United States citizens, the crewing requirements and material requirements of the USCG, and the application of United States labor and tax laws increases the cost of United States flagged vessels compared to comparable foreign flagged vessels. The Company’s business could be adversely affected if the Jones Act or international trade agreements or laws were to be modified or waived as to permit foreign flagged vessels to operate in the United States as these vessels are not subject to the same United States government imposed regulations, laws, and restrictions. Since the events of September 11, 2001, the United States government has taken steps to increase security of United States ports, coastal waters and inland waterways. The Company believes that it is unlikely that the current cabotage provisions of the Jones Act would be eliminated or significantly modified in a way that has a material adverse impact on the Company in the foreseeable future.

The Secretary of Homeland Security is vested with the authority and discretion to waive the Jones Act to such extent and upon such terms as the Secretary may prescribe whenever the Secretary deems that such action is necessary in the interest of national defense. On September 8, 2017, following Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, the Department of Homeland Security issued a waiver of the Jones Act for a 7-day period for shipments from New York, Pennsylvania, Texas and Louisiana to South Carolina, Georgia, Florida and Puerto Rico. The waiver was specifically tailored to address the transportation of refined petroleum products due to disruptions in hurricane-affected areas. On September 11, 2017, the waiver was extended for 11 days and expanded to include additional states. Following Hurricane Maria, on September 28, 2017, the Department of Homeland Security issued a waiver of the Jones Act for movement of products shipped from United States coastwise points to Puerto Rico through October 18, 2017. Waivers of the Jones Act, whether in response to natural disasters or otherwise, could result in increased competition from foreign tank vessel operators, which could negatively impact the marine transportation segment.

The Company’s marine transportation segment is subject to extensive regulation by the USCG, federal laws, other federal agencies, various state laws and certain international conventions, as well as numerous environmental regulations. The majority of the Company’s vessels are subject to inspection by the USCG and carry certificates of inspection. The crews employed by the Company aboard vessels are licensed or certified by the USCG. The Company is required by various governmental agencies to obtain licenses, certificates and permits for its owned and operated vessels. The Company’s operations are also affected by various United States and state regulations and legislation enacted for protection of the environment. The Company incurs significant expenses and capital expenditures to comply with applicable laws and regulations and any significant new regulation or legislation, including climate change laws or regulations, could have an adverse effect on the Company.

The Company’s marine transportation segment is subject to natural gas and crude oil prices as well as the volatility of their prices as well as the volatility in production of refined products and petrochemicals in the United States. For 2020, 52% of the marine transportation segment’s revenues were from the movement of petrochemicals, including the movement of raw materials and feedstocks from one refinery or petrochemical plant to another, as well as the movement of more finished products to end users and terminals for export. During 2020, petrochemical and refined products volumes decreased relative to 2019 and 2018, as a result of reduced demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic and petrochemical and refinery plant shutdowns. However, the United States petrochemical industry continues to benefit from a low-cost domestically produced natural gas feedstock advantage, producing strong volumes of raw materials and intermediate products for transportation between Gulf Coast petrochemical plants and the transportation of more finished products to terminals for both domestic consumers and for export destinations. In addition, approximately seven new United States petrochemical projects, including expansion of existing plants or new plants, are scheduled to be completed during 2021, which should provide additional movements for the marine transportation segment. Higher natural gas and crude oil prices are generally better for the Company’s businesses, however higher natural gas prices and other factors could negatively impact the United States petrochemical industry and its production volumes, which could negatively impact the Company.

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Demand for tank barge transportation services is driven by the production of volumes of the bulk liquid commodities such as petrochemicals, black oil and refined petroleum products that the Company transports by tank barge. This production can depend on the prevailing level of natural gas and crude oil prices, as well as the volatility of their prices.  In general, lower energy prices are good for the United States economy and typically translate into increased petrochemical and refined product demand and therefore increased demand for tank barge transportation services. However, during 2016 and 2017 lower crude oil prices resulted in a decline in domestic crude oil and natural gas condensate production and reduced volumes to be transported by tank barge. The Company estimates that at the beginning of 2015 there were approximately 550 inland tank barges and 35 coastal tank barges in the 195,000 barrels or less category transporting crude oil and natural gas condensate. At the end of 2016, the Company estimated that approximately 140 inland tank barges and approximately 10 coastal tank barges in the 195,000 barrels or less category were transporting such products, a reduction of approximately 410 inland tank barges and 25 coastal tank barges that moved into other markets. At the end of 2017, the Company estimated that approximately 250 inland tank barges and approximately three coastal tank barges were transporting crude and natural gas condensate. At the end of 2018, the Company estimates that approximately 375 inland tank barges and approximately three coastal tank barges were transporting crude and natural gas condensate. As of the end of 2019, the Company estimates that approximately 335 inland tank barges and approximately five coastal tank barges were transporting crude and natural gas condensate.  During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic and oil price volatility resulted in a sharp decrease in volumes of crude and natural gas condensate being transported.  As of the end of 2020, the Company estimates that approximately 100 to 150 inland tank barges and one coastal tank barge were transporting crude and natural gas condensate.  Volatility in the price of natural gas and crude oil can also result in heightened uncertainty which may lead to decreased production and delays in new petrochemical and refinery plant construction. Increased competition for available black oil and petrochemical barge moves caused by reduced crude oil and natural gas condensate production could have an adverse impact on the Company’s marine transportation segment including as a result of lower spot and term contract rates and/or reluctance to enter into or extend term contracts.

The Company’s marine transportation segment could be adversely impacted by the construction of tank barges by its competitors. At the present time, there are an estimated 4,000 inland tank barges in the United States, of which the Company operates 1,066, or 27%. The number of tank barges peaked at an estimated 4,200 in 1982, slowly declined to 2,750 by 2003, and then gradually increased to an estimated 3,850 by the end of 2015 and 2016 and remained relatively flat since 2015.  For 2018, the Company estimated that industry-wide 75 new tank barges were placed in service, of which one was by the Company, and 100 tank barges were retired, 48 of which were by the Company.  For 2019, the Company estimated that industry-wide 150 new tank barges were placed in service, of which none were by the Company, and 100 tank barges were retired, 17 of which were by the Company.  For 2020, the Company estimated that industry-wide approximately 150 new tank barges were placed in service, six of which were purchased by the Company from another operator, and approximately 150 tank barges were retired, 95 of which were by the Company.  The increase for 2015 reflected the improved demand for inland petrochemical, refined petroleum products and black oil barges experienced in 2014 and federal tax incentives on new equipment. The decrease in the number of tank barges at the end of 2018 was primarily due to continued industry-wide tank barge retirements and minimal new tank barge construction. The Company estimates that approximately 35 new tank barges have been ordered during 2020 for delivery in 2021 and expects many older tank barges, including an expected 26 by the Company, will be retired, dependent on 2021 market conditions.

The long-term risk of an oversupply of inland tank barges may be mitigated by the fact that the inland tank barge industry has approximately 350 tank barges that are over 30 years old and approximately 260 of those over 40 years old. Given the age profile of the industry inland tank barge fleet and extensive customer vetting standards, the expectation is that older tank barges will continue to be removed from service and replaced by new tank barges as needed, with the extent of both retirements and new builds dependent on petrochemical and refinery production levels and crude oil and natural gas condensate movements, both of which can have a direct effect on industry-wide tank barge utilization, as well as term and spot contract rates.

28

During 2018, 2019, and 2020, a decline in industry-wide demand for the movement of crude oil and natural gas condensate transportation volumes increased available capacity and resulted in some reluctance among certain customers to extend term contracts, which led to an increase in the number of coastal vessels operating in the spot market. In addition, the Company and the industry added new coastal tank barge capacity during 2018, 2019, and 2020. Much of this new capacity is replacement capacity for older vessels anticipated to be retired.

The Company estimates there are approximately 280 tank barges operating in the 195,000 barrels or less coastal industry fleet, the sector of the market in which the Company operates, and approximately 20 of those are over 25 years old.  In June 2018, the Company purchased a 155,000 barrel coastal ATB under construction from another operator that was delivered to the Company in the 2018 fourth quarter.  The Company is aware of three coastal ATBs placed in service in 2018, two in 2019, and one in 2020 by competitors.  There is currently one announced small specialized coastal ATB under construction by a competitor for delivery in 2021.

Higher fuel prices could increase operating expenses and fuel price volatility could reduce profitability. The cost of fuel during 2020 was approximately 6% of marine transportation revenue. All of the Company’s marine transportation term contracts contain fuel escalation clauses, or the customer pays for the fuel. However, there is generally a 30 to 90 day delay before contracts are adjusted depending on the specific contract. In general, the fuel escalation clauses are effective over the long-term in allowing the Company to adjust to changes in fuel costs due to fuel price changes; however, the short-term effectiveness of the fuel escalation clauses can be affected by a number of factors including, but not limited to, specific terms of the fuel escalation formulas, fuel price volatility, navigating conditions, tow sizes, trip routing, and the location of loading and discharge ports that may result in the Company over or under recovering its fuel costs. The Company’s spot contract rates generally reflect current fuel prices at the time the contract is signed but do not have escalators for fuel.

Significant increases in the construction cost of tank barges and towing vessels may limit the Company’s ability to earn an adequate return on its investment in new tank barges and towing vessels. The price of steel, economic conditions, and supply and demand dynamics can significantly impact the construction cost of new tank barges and towing vessels. Over the last 20 years, the Company’s average construction price for a new 30,000 barrel capacity inland tank barge has fluctuated up or down significantly. For example, the average construction price for a new 30,000 barrel capacity tank barge in 2009 was approximately 90% higher than in 2000, with increases primarily related to higher steel costs. During 2009, the United States and global recession negatively impacted demand levels for inland tank barges and as a result, the construction price of inland tank barges fell significantly in 2010, primarily due to a significant decrease in steel prices, as well as a decrease in the number of tank barges ordered. In 2018 through 2020, increases in steel costs and improvement in supply and demand dynamics resulted in construction prices for a new 30,000 barrel tank barge increasing compared to prices in 2017 when there was an industry-wide over-capacity of inland tank barges in the market.

The Company’s marine transportation segment could be adversely impacted by the failure of the Company’s shipyard vendors to deliver new vessels according to contractually agreed delivery schedules and terms. The Company contracts with shipyards to build new vessels and currently has many vessels under construction. Construction projects are subject to risks of delay and cost overruns, resulting from shortages of equipment, materials and skilled labor; lack of shipyard availability; unforeseen design and engineering problems; work stoppages; weather interference; unanticipated cost increases; unscheduled delays in the delivery of material and equipment; and financial and other difficulties at shipyards including labor disputes, shipyard insolvency and inability to obtain necessary certifications and approvals. A significant delay in the construction of new vessels or a shipyard’s inability to perform under the construction contract could negatively impact the Company’s ability to fulfill contract commitments and to realize timely revenues with respect to vessels under construction. Significant cost overruns or delays for vessels under construction could also adversely affect the Company’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.  To date, the Company has not experienced significant shipyard delays associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including at its subsidiary, San Jac.

29

The Company is subject to competition in its marine transportation segment. The inland and coastal tank barge industry remains very fragmented and competitive. The Company’s primary competitors are noncaptive inland tank barge operators and coastal operators. The Company also competes with companies who operate refined product and petrochemical pipelines, railroad tank cars and tractor-trailer tank trucks. Increased competition from any significant expansion of or additions to facilities or equipment by the Company’s competitors could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations. In addition, the Company’s failure to adhere to its safety, reliability and performance standards may impact its ability to retain current customers or attract new customers.

Distribution and Services Segment Risk Factors

The Company’s distribution and services segment could be adversely impacted by future legislation, executive or other governmental orders, or additional regulation of oil and gas extraction, including hydraulic fracturing practices. The Company, through its United and S&S subsidiaries, is a distributor and service provider of engine and transmission related products for the oil and gas services, power generation and transportation industries, and a manufacturer of oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units. The EPA is studying hydraulic fracturing practices, and legislation may be enacted by Congress that would authorize the EPA to impose additional regulations on hydraulic fracturing. In addition, a number of states have adopted or are evaluating the adoption of legislation or regulations governing hydraulic fracturing or byproducts of the fracturing process. In January 2021, the Secretary of the Interior ordered a 60-day pause on issuing new drilling permits and new leases on federal lands in response to a related executive order issued by President Biden, and it is uncertain what further action may be taken. Such federal or state legislation, executive or governmental orders, and/or regulations could materially impact customers’ operations and greatly reduce or eliminate demand for the Company’s pressure pumping fracturing equipment and related products. The Company is unable to predict whether future legislation or any other regulations will ultimately be enacted and, if so, the impact on the Company’s distribution and services segment.

The Company’s distribution and services segment could be adversely impacted by the construction of pressure pumping units by its competitors. In early 2015, an estimated 21.0 million horsepower of pressure pumping units were working, or available to work, in North America. By late 2016, the working horsepower in North America had declined to an estimated 6.0 million, with an estimated 2.0 million horsepower scrapped, an estimated 2.0 million horsepower available for work and an estimated 12.5 million horsepower stacked, the large majority of which would require major service before being placed back in service. A significant drop in demand due to the low price of crude oil resulted in an oversupply in the pressure pumping market and negatively impacted the Company’s 2015 and 2016 results of operations. During 2017 and 2018, with the stabilization of crude oil prices in the $40 to $70 per barrel range, the United States land rig count improved and service intensity in the well completion business increased. As a result, the Company experienced a healthy rebound in service demand during 2018, particularly with pressure pumping unit remanufacturing and transmission overhauls, and with the acquisition of S&S in September 2017, the manufacture of oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, and the sale of transmissions.  At the end of 2019, an estimated 15.0 million horsepower of pressure pumping units were working in North America, with an estimated 6.0 million horsepower available to work, and 3.0 million horsepower stacked and in need of major repair.  During 2020, a significant reduction in oilfield activity as a result of oil price volatility throughout 2019 and 2020 and the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a decrease to an estimated 6.0 million horsepower of pressure pumping units working in North America, with an estimated 1.5 million horsepower available to work, and 12.0 million horsepower stacked and in need of major repair.  Increased expansion of, or additions to, facilities or equipment by the Company’s competitors could have a negative impact on the Company’s results of operations.

Prevailing natural gas and crude oil prices, as well as the volatility of their prices, could have an adverse effect on the distribution and services segment business. Lower energy prices generally result in a decrease in the number of oil and gas wells being drilled. Oilfield service companies reduce their capital spending, resulting in decreased demand for new parts and equipment, including pressure pumping units, provided by the Company’s distribution and services segment. This may also lead to order cancellations from customers or customers requesting to delay delivery of new equipment. The Company also services offshore supply vessels and offshore drillings rigs operating in the Gulf of Mexico, as well as internationally. Low energy prices may negatively impact the number of wells drilled in the Gulf of Mexico and international waters. Prolonged downturns in oil and gas prices may cause substantial declines in oilfield service and exploration expenditures and could adversely impact oil and gas manufacturing, remanufacturing, parts and distribution business. In addition, energy price volatility may also result in difficulties in the Company’s ability to ramp up and ramp down production on a timely basis and, therefore, could result in an adverse impact on the Company’s distribution and services segment.

30

The Company is subject to competition in its distribution and services segment. The distribution and services industry is very competitive. The segment’s oil and gas market’s principal competitors are independent distribution and service and oilfield manufacturing companies and other factory-authorized distributors and service centers. In addition, certain oilfield service companies that are customers of the Company also manufacture and service a portion of their own oilfield equipment. Increased competition in the distribution and services industry and continued low price of natural gas, crude oil or natural gas condensate, and resulting decline in drilling for such natural resources in North American shale formations, could result in less oilfield equipment being manufactured and remanufactured, lower rates for service and parts pricing and result in less manufacturing, remanufacturing, service and repair opportunities and parts sales for the Company. For the commercial and industrial market, the segment’s primary marine diesel competitors are independent diesel services companies and other factory-authorized distributors, authorized service centers and authorized marine dealers. Certain operators of diesel powered marine equipment also elect to maintain in-house service capabilities. For power generation, the primary competitors are other independent service companies.

Loss of a distributorship or other significant business relationship could adversely affect the Company’s distribution and services segment.  The Company’s distribution and services segment has had a relationship with EMD, the largest manufacturer of medium-speed diesel engines, for over 50 years. The Company, through Kirby Engine Systems, serves as both an EMD distributor and service center for select markets and locations for both service and parts. With the acquisition of S&S in September 2017, the Company added additional EMD exclusive distributorship rights in key states, primarily through the Central, South and Eastern areas of the United States. With the S&S acquisition, the Company became the United States distributor for EMD marine and power generation applications. Sales and service of EMD products account for approximately 4% of the Company’s revenues for 2020. Although the Company considers its relationship with EMD to be strong, the loss of the EMD distributorship and service rights, or a disruption of the supply of EMD parts, could have a negative impact on the Company’s ability to service its customers. In 2020, with the acquisition of Convoy Servicing Company and Agility Fleet Services, LLC, the Company expanded its dealership network of Thermo King refrigeration systems for trucks, railroad cars, and other land transportation markets in Texas and Colorado.  In 2020, sales and service of Thermo King products comprised approximately 5% of the Company’s revenues.

United and S&S have maintained continuous exclusive distribution rights for MTU and Allison since the 1940s. United and S&S are two of MTU’s top five distributors of off-highway engines in North America, with exclusive distribution rights in multiple states. In addition, as distributors of Allison products, United and S&S have exclusive distribution rights in multiple key growth states. United and S&S are also the distributor for parts, service and warranty on Daimler truck engines and related equipment in multiple states. Sales and service of MTU, Allison, and Daimler products accounted for approximately 8% of the Company’s revenues during 2020. Although the Company considers its relationships with MTU, Allison, and Daimler to be strong, the loss of MTU, Allison, or Daimler distributorships and service rights, or a disruption of the supply of MTU or Allison parts, could have a negative impact on the Company’s ability to service its customers.

In addition to its relationships with MTU, Allison, and Daimler, the Company also has relationships with many other distributors and parts suppliers and the loss of a distributorship and service rights, or a disruption of the supply of parts from any of these other distributors or part suppliers could also have a negative impact on the Company’s ability to service its customers.

General Risk Factors

The Company is subject to adverse weather conditions in its marine transportation and distribution and services segments. The Company’s marine transportation segment is subject to weather condition volatility. Adverse weather conditions such as high or low water on the inland waterway systems, fog and ice, tropical storms, hurricanes, and tsunamis on both the inland waterway systems and throughout the United States coastal waters can impair the operating efficiencies of the marine fleet. Such adverse weather conditions can cause a delay, diversion or postponement of shipments of products and are totally beyond the control of the Company.  Tropical storms and hurricanes may also impact the Company’s customers resulting in reduced demand for the Company’s services. In addition, adverse water and weather conditions can negatively affect a towing vessel’s performance, tow size, loading drafts, fleet efficiency, limit navigation periods and dictate horsepower requirements. The Company’s distribution and services segment is also subject to tropical storms and hurricanes impacting its coastal locations and those of its customers as well as tornadoes impacting its Oklahoma facilities. The risk of flooding as a result of hurricanes and tropical storms as well as other weather events may impede travel via roadways, suspend service work, and impact deliveries and the Company’s ability to fulfill orders or provide services in the distribution and services segment.

31

The Company may be unable to make attractive acquisitions or successfully integrate acquired businesses, and any inability to do so may adversely affect the Company’s business and hinder its ability to grow. The Company has made asset and business acquisitions in the past and may continue to make acquisitions of assets or businesses in the future that complement or expand the Company’s current business. The Company may not be able to identify attractive acquisition opportunities. Even if attractive acquisition opportunities are identified, the Company may not be able to complete the acquisition or do so on commercially acceptable terms. The success of any completed acquisition depends on the Company’s ability to integrate the acquired assets or business effectively into the Company’s existing operations. The process of integrating acquired assets or businesses may involve difficulties that require a disproportionate amount of the Company’s managerial and financial resources to resolve. The value of acquired assets or businesses may be negatively impacted by a variety of circumstances unknown to the Company prior to the acquisition. In addition, possible future acquisitions may be larger and for purchase prices significantly higher than those paid for earlier acquisitions. No assurance can be given that the Company will be able to identify additional suitable acquisition opportunities, negotiate acceptable terms, obtain financing for acquisitions on acceptable terms or successfully acquire identified targets. The Company’s failure to achieve synergies, to integrate successfully the acquired businesses and assets into the Company’s existing operations, or to minimize any unforeseen operational difficulties could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, agreements governing the Company’s indebtedness from time to time may impose certain limitations on the Company’s ability to undertake acquisitions or make investments or may limit the Company’s ability to incur certain indebtedness and liens, which could limit the Company’s ability to make acquisitions.

The Company’s failure to comply with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), or similar local applicable anti-bribery laws, could have a negative impact on its ongoing operations. The Company’s operations outside the United States require the Company to comply with both a number of United States and international regulations. For example, in addition to any similar applicable local anti-bribery laws, its operations in countries outside the United States are subject to the FCPA, which prohibits United States companies or their employees and third party representatives from providing anything of value to a foreign official for the purposes of influencing any act or decision of these individuals in their official capacity to help obtain or retain business, direct business to any person or corporate entity, or obtain any unfair advantage. The Company has internal control policies and procedures and has implemented training and compliance programs for its employees and third party representatives with respect to the FCPA. However, the Company’s policies, procedures and programs may not always protect it from reckless or criminal acts committed by its employees or third party representatives, and severe criminal or civil sanctions could be the result of violations of the FCPA or any other applicable anti-bribery law in countries where the Company does business. The Company is also subject to the risks that its employees, joint venture partners, and third party representatives outside of the United States may fail to comply with other applicable laws.

The Company is subject to risks associated with possible climate change legislation, regulation and international accords. Greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon emissions or energy use, have increasingly become the subject of a large amount of international, national, regional, state and local attention. Pursuant to an April 2007 decision of the United States Supreme Court, the EPA was required to consider if carbon dioxide was a pollutant that endangers public health. On December 7, 2009, the EPA issued its “endangerment finding” regarding greenhouse gasses under the CAA. The EPA found that the emission of six greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (which is emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels), may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health and welfare. Based on this finding, the EPA defined the mix of these six greenhouse gases to be “air pollution” subject to regulation under the CAA. Although the EPA has stated a preference that greenhouse gas regulation be based on new federal legislation rather than the existing CAA, many sources of greenhouse gas emissions may be regulated without the need for further legislation.

The United States Congress has considered in the past legislation that would create an economy-wide “cap-and-trade” system that would establish a limit (or cap) on overall greenhouse gas emissions and create a market for the purchase and sale of emissions permits or “allowances.” Any proposed cap-and-trade legislation would likely affect the chemical industry due to anticipated increases in energy costs as fuel providers pass on the cost of the emissions allowances, which they would be required to obtain under cap-and-trade to cover the emissions from fuel production and the eventual use of fuel by the Company or its energy suppliers. In addition, cap-and-trade proposals would likely increase the cost of energy, including purchases of diesel fuel, steam and electricity, and certain raw materials used or transported by the Company. Proposed domestic and international cap-and-trade systems could materially increase raw material and operating costs of the Company’s customer base. Future environmental regulatory developments related to climate change in the United States that restrict emissions of greenhouse gases could result in financial impacts on the Company’s operations that cannot be predicted with certainty at this time.

32

In addition, current global trends incorporating carbon neutral policies and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are driving decarbonization initiatives across all industries to mitigate the impact on climate change and may result in a decline in global and U.S. hydrocarbon usage.  Such a decline in hydrocarbon usage (for example, as a result of an increase in electric vehicles) could result in a reduction in demand for (a) the Company’s services in its marine transportation segment to the extent there is reduced demand for crude oil and other feedstocks used and the products produced by the Company’s major refining customers and (b) for the Company’s products and services in its distribution and services segment to the extent there is reduced demand in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons by the Company’s oil and gas customers.

Loss of a large customer could adversely affect the Company. Five marine transportation customers accounted for approximately 18% of the Company’s 2020, 19% of 2019 and 18% of 2018 revenue. The Company has contracts with these customers expiring in 2021 through 2026. Three distribution and services customers accounted for approximately 3% of the Company’s 2020 revenue, 12% of 2019 revenue, and 13% of 2018 revenue. Although the Company considers its relationships with these companies to be strong, the loss of any of these customers, or their inability to meet financial obligations, could have an adverse effect on the Company.

The Company relies on critical operating assets including information systems for the operation of its businesses, and the failure of such assets or any critical information system, including as a result of natural disasters, terrorist acts, a cyber-security attack, or other extraordinary events, may adversely impact its businesses. The Company is dependent on its critical operating assets and technology infrastructure and must maintain and rely upon critical information systems and security of its assets for the effective and safe operation of its businesses. These assets include vessels, vessel equipment, property and facilities, as well as information systems, such as software applications, hardware equipment, and data networks and telecommunications.

The Company’s critical assets and information systems, including the Company’s proprietary vessel management computer system, are subject to damage or interruption from a number of potential sources, including but not limited to, natural disasters, terrorist acts, cyber-security attacks, software viruses, and power failures. In addition to standard safety operating procedures, the Company has implemented measures such as business continuity plans, hurricane preparedness plans, emergency recovery processes, and security preparedness plans to protect physical assets and to recover from damage to such assets.  The Company has also implemented virus protection software, intrusion detection systems and annual attack and penetration audits to protect information systems to mitigate these risks. However, the Company cannot guarantee that its critical assets or information systems cannot be damaged or compromised.

Any damage or compromise of its critical assets or data security or its inability to use or access these critical assets and information systems could adversely impact the efficient and safe operation of its businesses, or result in the failure to safely operate its equipment, and maintain the confidentiality of data of its customers or its employees and could subject the Company to increased operating expenses or legal action, which could have an adverse effect on the Company.

A deterioration of the Company’s credit profile, disruptions of the credit markets or higher interest rates could restrict its ability to access the debt capital markets or increase the cost of debt.  Deterioration in the Company’s credit profile may have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to access the private or public debt markets and also may increase its borrowing costs. If the Company’s credit profile deteriorates significantly its access to the debt capital markets or its ability to renew its committed lines of credit may become restricted, its cost of debt may increase, or the Company may not be able to refinance debt at the same levels or on the same terms. Because the Company relies on its ability to draw on its Revolving Credit Facility to support its operations as needed, any volatility in the credit and financial markets that prevents the Company from accessing funds on acceptable terms could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and cash flows. Additionally, the pricing grids on Company’s Revolving Credit Facility and Term Loan contain a ratings grid that includes a possible increase in borrowing rates if the Company’s rating declines. Furthermore, the Company incurs interest under its Revolving Credit Facility based on floating rates. Floating rate debt creates higher debt service requirements if market interest rates increase, which would adversely affect the Company’s cash flow and results of operations. In addition, as the floating rate on certain borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility is tied to LIBOR, the uncertainty regarding the future of LIBOR as well as the transition from LIBOR to an alternate benchmark rate or rates could adversely affect the Company’s financing costs.

Continuing widespread health developments and economic uncertainty resulting from the recent global COVID-19 pandemic could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.  In December 2019, COVID-19 surfaced in Wuhan, China.  In response to the resulting pandemic, various countries, including the United States, either mandated or recommended business closures, travel restrictions or limitations, social distancing, and/or self-quarantine, among other actions.  Additionally, various state and local governments in locations where the Company operates took similar actions.  The full impact and duration of the outbreak is still unknown and the situation continues to evolve.  Many governments are in various stages of removing or easing these actions.  In some cases, governments have reinstated actions or slowed reopenings and they may impose new actions in an effort to reduce or manage current or anticipated levels of infection.  The full extent and duration of these impacts is unknown at this time, but there has been and continues to be a negative impact on the global and United States economies, including the oil and gas industry, which has reduced demand for the Company’s products and services.

These impacts could continue to place limitations on the Company’s ability to execute on its business plan and materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations. The Company continues to monitor the situation, actively implemented policies and procedures to address the situation, including its pandemic response plan and business continuity plan, and took steps to reduce costs.  As the pandemic continues to further unfold, the Company may further adjust its current policies and procedures as government mandates or recommendations change or as more information and guidance become available. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may also exacerbate other risks discussed above, any of which could have a material effect on the Company. This situation is changing rapidly and additional impacts may arise that the Company is not aware of currently.

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Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

Item 2.
Properties

The information appearing in Item 1 under “Marine Transportation– Properties” and “Distribution and Services– Properties” is incorporated herein by reference. The Company believes that its facilities are adequate for its needs and additional facilities would be available if required.

Item 3.
Legal Proceedings

See Note 14, Contingencies and Commitments to the Company’s financial statements.

Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

34

PART II

Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The Company’s common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol KEX.

As of February 19, 2021, the Company had 60,085,000 outstanding shares held by approximately 575 stockholders of record; however, the Company believes the number of beneficial owners of common stock exceeds this number.

The Company does not have an established dividend policy. Decisions regarding the payment of future dividends will be made by the Board of Directors based on the facts and circumstances that exist at that time. Since 1989, the Company has not paid any dividends on its common stock. The Company’s credit agreements contain covenants restricting the payment of dividends by the Company at any time when there is a default under the agreements.

Item 6.
Selected Financial Data

The comparative selected financial data of the Company and consolidated subsidiaries is presented for the five years ended December 31, 2020. The information should be read in conjunction with Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of the Company in Item 7 and the Financial Statements included under Item 8 (selected financial data in thousands, except per share amounts).

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2020
   
2019
   
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
Revenues:
                             
Marine transportation
 
$
1,404,265
   
$
1,587,082
   
$
1,483,143
   
$
1,324,106
   
$
1,471,893
 
Distribution and services
   
767,143
     
1,251,317
     
1,487,554
     
890,312
     
298,780
 
   
$
2,171,408
   
$
2,838,399
   
$
2,970,697
   
$
2,214,418
   
$
1,770,673
 
                                         
Net earnings (loss) attributable to Kirby
 
$
(272,546
)
 
$
142,347
   
$
78,452
   
$
313,187
   
$
141,406
 
                                         
Net earnings (loss) per share attributable to Kirby common stockholders:
                                       
Basic
 
$
(4.55
)
 
$
2.38
   
$
1.31
   
$
5.62
   
$
2.63
 
Diluted
 
$
(4.55
)
 
$
2.37
   
$
1.31
   
$
5.62
   
$
2.62
 
                                         
Common stock outstanding:
                                       
Basic
   
59,912
     
59,750
     
59,557
     
55,308
     
53,454
 
Diluted
   
59,912
     
59,909
     
59,689
     
55,361
     
53,512
 

 
December 31,
 
   
2020
   
2019
   
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
Property and equipment, net
 
$
3,917,070
   
$
3,777,110
   
$
3,539,802
   
$
2,959,265
   
$
2,921,374
 
Total assets
 
$
5,924,174
   
$
6,079,097
   
$
5,871,594
   
$
5,127,427
   
$
4,289,895
 
Long-term debt, including current portion
 
$
1,468,586
   
$
1,369,767
   
$
1,410,188
   
$
992,406
   
$
722,802
 
Total equity
 
$
3,087,553
   
$
3,371,592
   
$
3,216,301
   
$
3,114,223
   
$
2,412,867
 

35

Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Statements contained in this Form 10-K that are not historical facts, including, but not limited to, any projections contained herein, are forward-looking statements and involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Such statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” or “continue,” or the negative thereof or other variations thereon or comparable terminology. The actual results of the future events described in such forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K could differ materially from those stated in such forward-looking statements. Among the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially are: adverse economic conditions, industry competition and other competitive factors, adverse weather conditions such as high water, low water, tropical storms, hurricanes, tsunamis, fog and ice, tornados, COVID-19 or other pandemics, marine accidents, lock delays, fuel costs, interest rates, construction of new equipment by competitors, government and environmental laws and regulations, and the timing, magnitude and number of acquisitions made by the Company. For a more detailed discussion of factors that could cause actual results to differ from those presented in forward-looking statements, see Item 1A-Risk Factors. Forward-looking statements are based on currently available information and the Company assumes no obligation to update any such statements.

For purposes of Management’s Discussion, all net earnings per share attributable to Kirby common stockholders are “diluted earnings per share.” The weighted average number of common shares outstanding applicable to diluted earnings per share for 2020, 2019 and 2018 were 59,912,000, 59,909,000 and 59,689,000, respectively.

Overview

The Company is the nation’s largest domestic tank barge operator, transporting bulk liquid products throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, coastwise along all three United States coasts, and in Alaska and Hawaii. The Company transports petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals by tank barge. As of December 31, 2020, the Company operated a fleet of 1,066 inland tank barges with 24.1 million barrels of capacity, and operated an average of 248 inland towboats during the 2020 fourth quarter. The Company’s coastal fleet consisted of 44 tank barges with 4.2 million barrels of capacity and 44 coastal tugboats. The Company also owns and operates four offshore dry-bulk cargo barges, four offshore tugboats and one docking tugboat transporting dry-bulk commodities in United States coastal trade. Through its distribution and services segment, the Company provides after-market service and parts for engines, transmissions, reduction gears, and related equipment used in oilfield services, marine, power generation, on-highway, and other industrial applications. The Company also rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, railcar movers, and high capacity lift trucks for use in a variety of industrial markets, and manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, for land-based oilfield service customers.

For 2020, net loss attributable to Kirby was $272,546,000, or $4.55 per share, on revenues of $2,171,408,000, compared to 2019 net earnings attributable to Kirby of $142,347,000, or $2.37 per share, on revenues of $2,838,399,000. The 2020 first quarter included $561,274,000 before taxes, $433,341,000 after taxes, or $7.24 per share, non-cash charges related to inventory write-downs, impairment of long-lived assets, including intangible assets and property and equipment, and impairment of goodwill in the distribution and services segment.  See Note 7, Impairments and Other Charges for additional information.  In addition, the 2020 first quarter was favorably impacted by an income tax benefit of $50,824,000, or $0.85 per share related to net operating losses generated in 2018 and 2019 used to offset taxable income generated between 2013 and 2017.  See Note 9, Taxes on Income for additional information.  The 2019 fourth quarter included $35,525,000 before taxes, $27,978,000 after taxes, or $0.47 per share, non-cash inventory write-downs and $4,757,000 before taxes, $3,747,000 after taxes, or $0.06 per share, severance and early retirement expense.

Marine Transportation

For 2020, 65% of the Company’s revenues were generated by its marine transportation segment. The segment’s customers include many of the major petrochemical and refining companies that operate in the United States. Products transported include intermediate materials used to produce many of the end products used widely by businesses and consumers — plastics, fibers, paints, detergents, oil additives and paper, among others, as well as residual fuel oil, ship bunkers, asphalt, gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, crude oil, natural gas condensate and agricultural chemicals. Consequently, the Company’s marine transportation business is directly affected by the volumes produced by the Company’s petroleum, petrochemical and refining customer base.

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The Company’s marine transportation segment’s revenues for 2020 decreased 12% compared to 2019 and operating income decreased 24%, compared to 2019. The decreases were primarily due to reduced barge utilization in the inland and coastal markets and decreased term and spot contract pricing in the inland market, each as a result of a reduction in demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic, lower fuel rebills, retirements of three large coastal barges, and planned shipyard activity in the coastal market. These reductions were partially offset by the acquisition of the Savage Inland Marine, LLC (“Savage”) fleet acquired on April 1, 2020 and the Cenac Marine Services, LLC (“Cenac”) fleet acquired on March 14, 2019. The 2020 third quarter was impacted by hurricanes and tropical storms along the East and Gulf Coasts and the closure of the Illinois river. The 2020 first quarter and 2019 first six months were each impacted by poor operating conditions and high delay days due to heavy fog and wind along the Gulf Coast, high water on the Mississippi River System, and closures of key waterways as a result of lock maintenance projects, as well as increased shipyard days on large capacity coastal vessels. The 2019 first six months was also impacted by prolonged periods of ice on the Illinois River and a fire at a chemical storage facility on the Houston Ship Channel.  For 2020 and 2019, the inland tank barge fleet contributed 78% and 77%, respectively, and the coastal fleet contributed 22% and 23%, respectively, of marine transportation revenues.

During 2020, reduced demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic slowdown contributed to lower barge utilization. Inland tank barge utilization levels averaged in the low to mid-90% range during the 2020 first quarter, the mid-80% range during the 2020 second quarter, the low 70% range during the 2020 third quarter, and the high 60% range during the 2020 fourth quarter.  For 2019, barge utilization averaged in the mid-90% range during both the first and second quarters and the low 90% range during both the third and fourth quarters.  The 2020 first quarter and full year 2019 each experienced strong demand from petrochemicals, black oil, and refined petroleum products customers.  Extensive delay days due to poor operating conditions and lock maintenance projects in the 2020 first quarter and 2019 first six months slowed the transport of customer cargoes and contributed to strong barge utilization during those periods.

Coastal tank barge utilization levels averaged in the low to mid-80% range during the 2020 first quarter and the mid-70% range during each of the 2020 second, third, and fourth quarters. In 2019, barge utilization averaged in the low 80% range during the first quarter and the mid-80% range during each of the second, third, and fourth quarters. Barge utilization in the coastal marine fleet continued to be impacted by the oversupply of smaller tank barges in the coastal industry during 2020 and 2019.

During both 2020 and 2019, approximately 65% of the inland marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 35% were spot contract revenues.  These allocations provide the operations with a reasonably predictable revenue stream. Inland time charters, which insulate the Company from revenue fluctuations caused by weather and navigational delays and temporary market declines, represented 66% of the inland revenues under term contracts during 2020 compared to 62% during 2019. Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2020 first quarter increased in the 1% to 3% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 first quarter.  Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2020 second quarter were flat compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 second quarter.  Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2020 third quarter decreased in the 1% to 3% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 third quarter.  Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2020 fourth quarter decreased in the 10% to 12% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 fourth quarter.  Spot contract rates in the 2020 first quarter increased in the 4% to 6% average range compared to the 2019 first quarter. Spot contract rates in the 2020 second quarter decreased in the 5% to 10% average range compared to the 2019 second quarter.  Spot contract rates in the 2020 third quarter decreased approximately 10% compared to the 2019 third quarter. Spot contract rates in the 2020 fourth quarter decreased approximately 25% compared to the 2019 fourth quarter. There was no material rate increase on January 1, 2020, related to annual escalators for labor and the producer price index on a number of inland multi-year contracts.

During 2020 and 2019, approximately 85% and 80%, respectively, of the coastal revenues were under term contracts and 15% and 20%, respectively, were spot contract revenues. Coastal time charters represented approximately 90% of coastal revenues under term contracts during 2020 compared to 85% during 2019.  Spot and term contract pricing in the coastal market are contingent on various factors including geographic location, vessel capacity, vessel type and product serviced.  Rates on coastal term contracts renewed in the 2020 first quarter increased in the 10% to 15% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 first quarter.  Rates on coastal term contracts renewed in the 2020 second quarter were flat compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 second quarter.  Rates on coastal term contracts renewed in both the 2020 third and fourth quarters decreased in the 4% to 6% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 third and fourth quarters. Spot market rates in the 2020 first quarter increased in the 10% to 15% average range compared to the 2019 first quarter.  Spot market rates in each of the 2020 second, third, and fourth quarters were flat compared to the 2019 second, third, and fourth quarters.

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The 2020 marine transportation operating margin was 11.7% compared to 13.6% for 2019.

Distribution and Services

During 2020, the distribution and services segment generated 35% of the Company’s revenues, of which 93% was generated from service and parts and 7% from manufacturing. The results of the distribution and services segment are largely influenced by cycles of the land-based oilfield service and oil and gas operator and producer markets, marine, power generation, on-highway and other industrial markets.

Distribution and services revenues for 2020 decreased 39% compared to 2019 and operating income decreased 118% compared to 2019. The decreases were primarily attributable to reduced activity in the oilfield as a result of oil price volatility throughout 2019 and 2020, the extensive downturn in oil and gas exploration due to low oil prices, caused in part by the COVID-19 pandemic, an oversupply of pressure pumping equipment in North America, and reduced spending and enhanced cash flow discipline for the Company’s major oilfield customers.  As a result, customer demand and incremental orders for new and remanufactured pressure pumping equipment and sales of new and overhauled transmissions and related parts and service declined during 2020.  For 2020, the oil and gas market represented approximately 26% of distribution and services revenues.

The 2020 commercial and industrial market revenues decreased compared to 2019, primarily due to reductions in on-highway and power generation service demand as a result of the COVID‑19 pandemic and the resulting economic slowdown and nationwide, state, and local stay-at-home orders, partially offset by contributions from the Convoy Servicing Company and Agility Fleet Services, LLC (collectively “Convoy”) acquisition on January 3, 2020.  Demand in the marine business was also down due to reduced major overhaul activity.  For 2020, the commercial and industrial market contributed 74% of the distribution and services revenues.

The distribution and services operating margin for 2020 was (1.6)% compared to 5.4% for 2019.

Cash Flow and Capital Expenditures

The Company generated favorable operating cash flow during 2020 with net cash provided by operating activities of $444,940,000 compared to $511,813,000 of net cash provided by operating activities for 2019, a 13% decrease. The decline was driven by decreased revenues and operating income in both the marine transportation and distribution and services segments.  The decrease in the marine transportation segment was driven by decreased barge utilization in the inland and coastal markets and decreased term and spot contract pricing in the inland market, each as a result of a reduction in demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by the Savage acquisition in April 2020 and the Cenac acquisition in March 2019 and reduced costs. The decrease in the distribution and services segment was primarily attributable to reduced activity in the oilfield as a result of oil price volatility throughout 2019 and 2020, the extensive downturn in oil and gas exploration due to low oil prices, caused in part by the COVID-19 pandemic, an oversupply of pressure pumping equipment in North America, and reduced spending and enhanced cash flow discipline for the Company’s major oilfield customers. The decline was also partially offset by changes in certain operating assets and liabilities primarily related to reduced incentive compensation payouts in the 2020 first quarter and a larger decrease in trade accounts receivable compared to an increase during 2019, driven by reduced business activity levels in both the marine transportation and distribution and services segments.  In addition, during 2020, the Company received a tax refund of $30,606,000 for its 2018 tax return related to net operating losses being carried back to offset taxable income generated during 2013.  During 2020 and 2019, the Company generated cash of $17,310,000 and $57,657,000, respectively, from proceeds from the disposition of assets, and $353,000 and $5,743,000, respectively, from proceeds from the exercise of stock options.

For 2020, cash generated and borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility were used for capital expenditures of $148,185,000, (including a decrease in accrued capital expenditures of $13,280,000) including $7,506,000 for inland towboat construction and $140,679,000 primarily for upgrading existing marine equipment and marine transportation and distribution and services facilities. The Company also used $354,972,000 for acquisitions of businesses and marine equipment, more fully described under Acquisitions below.

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For 2019, cash generated and borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility were used for capital expenditures of $248,164,000 (including a decrease in accrued capital expenditures of $13,875,000), including $22,008,000 for inland towboat construction, $18,433,000 for progress payments on three 5000 horsepower coastal ATB tugboats, $2,294,000 for final costs on a 155,000 barrel coastal ATB under construction purchased from another operator that was delivered to the Company in the 2018 fourth quarter, and $205,429,000 primarily for upgrading existing marine equipment and marine transportation and distribution and services facilities. The Company also used $262,491,000 for acquisitions of businesses and marine equipment, more fully described under Acquisitions below.

The Company’s debt-to-capitalization ratio increased to 32.2% at December 31, 2020 from 28.9% at December 31, 2019, primarily due to borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility to acquire the Savage fleet in the 2020 second quarter and the Convoy acquisition in the 2020 first quarter as well as the decrease in total equity, primarily from the net loss attributable to Kirby for 2020 of $272,546,000. The Company’s debt outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 is detailed in Long-Term Financing below.

During 2020, the Company acquired 92 inland tank barges from Savage with a total capacity of approximately 2.5 million barrels, purchased six newly constructed inland pressure barges, retired 94 inland tank barges, transferred one tank barge to coastal, returned two leased inland tank barges, and brought back into service 12 inland tank barges.  The net result was an increase of 13 inland tank barges and approximately 0.7 million barrels of capacity during 2020.

The Company projects that capital expenditures for 2021 will be in the $125,000,000 to $145,000,000 range.  The 2021 construction program will consist of approximately $15,000,000 for the construction of new inland towboats, $95,000,000 to $110,000,000 primarily for capital upgrades and improvements to existing marine equipment and facilities, and $15,000,000 to $20,000,000 for new machinery and equipment, facilities improvements, and information technology projects in the distribution and services segment and corporate.

Outlook

While there remains significant uncertainty around the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company expects improved business activity and utilization levels in the second half of 2021.  The first half of 2021 is expected to remain challenging until the pandemic eases and refinery utilization materially recovers and the U.S. economy rebounds.  In the first quarter, the Company expects weak market conditions in marine transportation to continue with pricing pressure on contract renewals.  Additionally, surging cases of COVID-19 across the United States have impacted the Company’s ability to crew its vessels, resulting in delays and in some cases, lost revenue primarily impacting the Company’s offshore vessels. As a result, first quarter 2021 earnings are expected to decline sequentially with improving results thereafter as the effects of the pandemic moderate and demand for the Company’s products and services increases.

In the inland marine transportation market, conditions are expected to remain challenging in the coming months, with gradual improvement in the second quarter and a more meaningful recovery in the second half of 2021.  Barge utilization is projected to start the year in the low to mid-70% range and improve into the high 80% to low 90% range by the end of the year.  Pricing, which typically improves with barge utilization, is expected to remain under pressure in the near-term.  First quarter revenues and operating margin are expected to be the lowest of the year, sequentially down from the 2020 fourth quarter due to the impact of lower pricing on term contract renewals and increased delays from seasonal winter weather.  Anticipated improvements in the spot market later in 2021 should contribute to increased barge utilization and better operating margins as the year progresses.  However, the full year impact of lower term contract pricing is expected to result in full year operating margins lower than the mid-teens margins realized in 2020.

As of December 31, 2020, the Company estimated there were approximately 4,000 inland tank barges in the industry fleet, of which approximately 350 were over 30 years old and approximately 260 of those over 40 years old. The Company estimates that approximately 35 new tank barges have been ordered for delivery in 2021 and many older tank barges, including an expected 26 by the Company, will be retired, dependent on 2021 market conditions. Historically, 75 to 150 older inland tank barges are retired from service each year industry-wide.  The extent of the retirements is dependent on petrochemical and refinery production levels, and crude oil and natural gas condensate movements, both of which can have a direct effect on industry-wide tank barge utilization, as well as term and spot contract rates.

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In the coastal marine transportation market, with limited spot demand and the return of some term equipment, lower term contract pricing, crewing difficulties due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the retirement of three older large capacity coastal vessels during 2020, and the retirement of an additional vessel in mid-2021, financial results are expected to be lower in 2021 than 2020. In the 2021 first quarter, the Company expects coastal revenues and operating margin to decline compared to the 2020 fourth quarter, primarily due to the impact of lower term contract pricing and challenges crewing vessels due to the COVID-19 pandemic. For the full year, coastal revenues are expected to decline compared to 2020 with negative operating margins, the magnitude of which will be dependent on the timing of a material improvement in refined products and black oil demand later in 2021.

As of December 31, 2020, the Company estimated there were approximately 280 tank barges operating in the 195,000 barrels or less coastal industry fleet, the sector of the market in which the Company operates, and approximately 20 of those were over 25 years old. The Company is aware of one announced small specialized coastal ATB in the 195,000 barrels or less category under construction by a competitor for delivery in 2021.

The results of the distribution and services segment are largely influenced by the cycles of the land-based oilfield service and oil and gas operator and producer markets, marine, power generation, on-highway and other industrial markets.  Improving economic activity and growth in the oilfield are expected to boost activity levels and contribute to meaningful year-over-year improvement in revenue and operating income.  In commercial and industrial, revenues are expected to benefit from improving economic conditions as well as from growth in the on-highway market, due in part to the Company’s new online parts sales platform which was launched in 2020.  However, these gains are expected to be partially offset by lower sales of new marine engines which remained strong throughout 2020.

In the distribution and services oil and gas market, higher commodity prices and increasing well completions activity are expected to contribute to improved demand for new transmission, service, and parts, as well as higher pressure pumping remanufacturing activity.  Additionally, a heightened focus on sustainability across the energy sector and industrial complex is expected to result in continued growth in new orders for Kirby’s portfolio of environmentally friendly equipment during the year.  Overall, operating margins in distribution and services are expected to be positive in the low to mid-single digits for the full year with the first quarter being the lowest and the third quarter being the highest prior to normal seasonal declines in the fourth quarter.

While the COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted the Company’s business, to date, it has not materially adversely impacted its ability to conduct its operations in either business segment.  The Company has maintained business continuity and expects to continue to do so.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis based on a combination of historical information and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the particular circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates based on different assumptions or conditions. The Company believes the critical accounting policies that most impact the consolidated financial statements are described below. It is also suggested that the Company’s significant accounting policies, as described in the Company’s financial statements in Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, be read in conjunction with this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Accounts Receivable. The Company extends credit to its customers in the normal course of business. The Company regularly reviews its accounts and estimates the amount of uncollectible receivables each period and establishes an allowance for uncollectible amounts. The amount of the allowance is based on the age of unpaid amounts, information about the current financial strength of customers, and other relevant information. Estimates of uncollectible amounts are revised each period, and changes are recorded in the period they become known. Historically, credit risk with respect to these trade receivables has generally been considered minimal because of the financial strength of the Company’s customers; however, a United States or global recession or other adverse economic condition could impact the collectability of certain customers’ trade receivables which could have a material effect on the Company’s results of operations.

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Property, Maintenance and Repairs. Property is recorded at cost; improvements and betterments are capitalized as incurred. Depreciation is recorded using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the individual assets. When property items are retired, sold, or otherwise disposed of, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts with any gain or loss on the disposition included in the statement of earnings. Maintenance and repairs on vessels built for use on the inland waterways are charged to operating expense as incurred and includes the costs incurred in USCG inspections unless the shipyard extends the life or improves the operating capacity of the vessel which results in the costs being capitalized. The Company’s ocean-going vessels are subject to regulatory drydocking requirements after certain periods of time to be inspected, have planned major maintenance performed and be recertified by the ABS. These recertifications generally occur twice in a five-year period. The Company defers the drydocking expenditures incurred on its ocean-going vessels due to regulatory marine inspections by the ABS and amortizes the costs of the shipyard over the period between drydockings, generally 30 or 60 months, depending on the type of major maintenance performed. Drydocking expenditures that extend the life or improve the operating capability of the vessel result in the costs being capitalized. Routine repairs and maintenance on ocean-going vessels are expensed as incurred. Interest is capitalized on the construction of new ocean-going vessels.

The Company performs an impairment assessment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of long-lived assets may not be recoverable. If a triggering event is identified, the Company compares the carrying amount of the asset group to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset group. If the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds the estimated undiscounted future cash flows, the Company measures the amount of the impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the asset group to its estimated fair value.  Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. There are many assumptions and estimates underlying the determination of an impairment event or loss, if any. The assumptions and estimates include, but are not limited to, estimated fair market value of the assets and estimated future cash flows expected to be generated by these assets, which are based on additional assumptions such as asset utilization, length of service the asset will be used, and estimated salvage values. Although the Company believes its assumptions and estimates are reasonable, deviations from the assumptions and estimates could produce a materially different result.

Goodwill. The excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in transactions accounted for as a purchase is included in goodwill. Management monitors the recoverability of goodwill on an annual basis, or whenever events or circumstances indicate that interim impairment testing is necessary. The amount of goodwill impairment, if any, is typically measured based on projected discounted future operating cash flows using an appropriate discount rate and valued based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value, incorporating all tax impacts caused by the recognition of the impairment loss. The assessment of the recoverability of goodwill will be impacted if estimated future operating cash flows are not achieved. There are many assumptions and estimates underlying the determination of an impairment event or loss, if any. Although the Company believes its assumptions and estimates are reasonable, deviations from the assumptions and estimates could produce a materially different result.

Accrued Insurance. The Company is subject to property damage and casualty risks associated with operating vessels carrying large volumes of bulk liquid and dry cargo in a marine environment. The Company maintains insurance coverage against these risks subject to a deductible, below which the Company is liable. In addition to expensing claims below the deductible amount as incurred, the Company also maintains a reserve for losses that may have occurred but have not been reported to the Company, or are not yet fully developed. The Company uses historic experience and actuarial analysis by outside consultants to estimate an appropriate level of accrued liabilities. If the actual number of claims and magnitude were substantially greater than assumed, the required level of accrued liabilities for claims incurred but not reported or fully developed could be materially understated. The Company records receivables from its insurers for incurred claims above the Company’s deductible. If the solvency of the insurers became impaired, there could be an adverse impact on the accrued receivables and the availability of insurance.

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Acquisitions

During 2020, the Company purchased six newly constructed inland pressure barges for $39,350,000 in cash. Financing of these equipment purchases was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility.

On April 1, 2020, the Company completed the acquisition of the inland tank barge fleet of Savage for $278,999,000 in cash. Savage’s tank barge fleet consisted of 92 inland tank barges with approximately 2.5 million barrels of capacity and 45 inland towboats.  The Savage assets that were acquired primarily move petrochemicals, refined products, and crude oil on the Mississippi River, its tributaries, and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway.  The Company also acquired Savage’s ship bunkering business and barge fleeting business along the Gulf Coast. Financing of the acquisition was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility.

On January 3, 2020, the Company completed the acquisition of substantially all the assets of Convoy for $37,180,000 in cash.  Convoy is an authorized dealer for Thermo King refrigeration systems for trucks, railroad cars and other land transportation markets for North and East Texas and Colorado. Financing of the acquisition was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company purchased, from various counterparties, a barge fleeting operation in Lake Charles, Louisiana and nine inland tank barges from leasing companies for an aggregate of $17,991,000 in cash. The Company had been leasing the barges prior to the purchases. Financing of these acquisitions was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility.

On March 14, 2019, the Company completed the acquisition of the marine transportation fleet of Cenac for $244,500,000 in cash. Cenac’s fleet consisted of 63 inland 30,000 barrel tank barges with approximately 1,833,000 barrels of capacity, 34 inland towboats and two offshore tugboats. Cenac transported petrochemicals, refined products and black oil, including crude oil, residual fuels, feedstocks and lubricants on the lower Mississippi River, its tributaries, and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway for major oil companies and refiners. The average age of the inland tank barges was approximately five years and the inland towboats had an average age of approximately seven years.  Financing of the acquisition was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility.

On December 28, 2018, the Company purchased three inland tank barges from a leasing company for $3,120,000 in cash.  The Company had been leasing the barges prior to the purchase. Financing of the equipment acquisition was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility.

On December 14, 2018, the Company purchased 27 inland tank barges with a barrel capacity of 306,000 barrels from CGBM 100, LLC (“CGBM”) for $28,500,000 in cash.  The 27 tank barges transport petrochemicals and refined products on the Mississippi River System and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway.  The average age of the barges was eight years.  Financing of the equipment acquisition was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility.

On November 30, 2018, the Company purchased an inland towboat from a leasing company for $3,050,000 in cash. The Company had been leasing the towboat prior to the purchase.  Financing of the equipment acquisition was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility.

On May 10, 2018, the Company completed the purchase of Targa Resources Corp.’s (“Targa”) inland tank barge business from a subsidiary of Targa for $69,250,000 in cash. Targa’s inland tank barge fleet consisted of 16 pressure barges with a total capacity of 258,000 barrels, many of which were under multi-year contracts that the Company assumed from Targa. The 16 tank barges transport petrochemicals on the Mississippi River System and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway.  Financing of the business acquisition was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility.

On March 15, 2018, the Company purchased two inland pressure tank barges from a competitor for $10,400,000 in cash. The average age of the two tank barges was five years.  Financing of the equipment acquisition was through borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility.

On February 14, 2018, the Company completed the acquisition of Higman for $421,922,000 in cash. Higman’s fleet consisted of 163 inland tank barges with 4.8 million barrels of capacity, and 75 inland towboats, transporting petrochemicals, black oil, including crude oil and natural gas condensate, and refined petroleum products on the Mississippi River System and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The average age of the inland tank barges was approximately seven years and the inland towboats had an average age of approximately eight years. Financing of the acquisition was through the issuance of the 2028 Notes (as defined in Note 5, Long-Term Debt to the Companys financial statements). The 2028 Notes were issued on February 12, 2018 in preparation for closing of the acquisition.

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Results of Operations

The following tables set forth the Company’s net earnings (loss) attributable to Kirby, along with per share amounts, and marine transportation and distribution and services revenues and the percentage of each to total revenues for the comparable periods (dollars in thousands):

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2020
   
2019
   
2018
 
Net earnings (loss) attributable to Kirby
 
$
(272,546
)
 
$
142,347
   
$
78,452
 
Net earnings (loss) attributable to Kirby per share - diluted
 
$
(4.55
)
 
$
2.37
   
$
1.31
 

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2020
   
%
   
2019
   
%
   
2018
   
%
 
Marine transportation
 
$
1,404,265
     
65
%
 
$
1,587,082
     
56
%
 
$
1,483,143
     
50
%
Distribution and services
   
767,143
     
35
     
1,251,317
     
44
     
1,487,554
     
50
 
   
$
2,171,408
     
100
%
 
$
2,838,399
     
100
%
 
$
2,970,697
     
100
%

The 2020 first quarter included $561,274,000 before taxes, $433,341,000 after taxes, or $7.24 per share, non-cash charges related to inventory write-downs, impairment of long-lived assets, including intangible assets and property and equipment, and impairment of goodwill in the distribution and services segment.  See Note 7, Impairments and Other Charges to the Companys financial statements for additional information.  In addition, the 2020 first quarter was favorably impacted by an income tax benefit of $50,824,000, or $0.85 per share related to net operating losses generated in 2018 and 2019 used to offset taxable income generated between 2013 and 2017.  See Note 9, Taxes on Income to the Companys financial statements for additional information.

The 2019 fourth quarter included $35,525,000 before taxes, $27,978,000 after taxes, or $0.47 per share, non-cash inventory write-downs and $4,757,000 before taxes, $3,747,000 after taxes, or $0.06 per share, severance and early retirement expense.

The 2018 fourth quarter included $85,108,000 before taxes, $67,235,000 after taxes, or $1.12 per share, non-cash impairment of long-lived assets and lease cancellation costs and $2,702,000 before taxes, $2,135,000 after taxes, or $0.04 per share, non-cash impairment of goodwill.  The 2018 second quarter included a one-time non-deductible expense of $18,057,000, or $0.30 per share, related to the retirement of Joseph H. Pyne as executive Chairman of the Board of Directors, effective April 30, 2018. The 2018 first quarter included $3,261,000 before taxes, or $0.04 per share, of one-time transaction costs associated with the Higman acquisition, as well as $2,912,000 before taxes, or $0.04 per share, of severance and retirement expenses, primarily related to cost reduction initiatives in the coastal marine transportation market and the integration of Higman.

 Marine Transportation

The Company, through its marine transportation segment, provides marine transportation services, operating tank barges and towing vessels transporting bulk liquid products throughout the Mississippi River System, on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, coastwise along all three United States coasts, and in Alaska and Hawaii. The Company transports petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals by tank barge. As of December 31, 2020, the Company operated 1,066 inland tank barges, including 37 leased barges, with a total capacity of 24.1 million barrels and an average of 248 inland towboats during the 2020 fourth quarter, of which 38 were chartered. This compares with 1,053 inland tank barges operated as of December 31, 2019, including 24 leased barges, with a total capacity of 23.4 million barrels and an average of 299 inland towboats during the 2019 fourth quarter, of which 75 were chartered.

The Company’s coastal tank barge fleet as of December 31, 2020 consisted of 44 tank barges, of which one was leased, with 4.2 million barrels of capacity, and 44 coastal tugboats, of which four were chartered. This compares with 49 coastal tank barges operated as of December 31, 2019, of which two were leased, with 4.7 million barrels of capacity, and 47 coastal tugboats, of which five were chartered. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company owned four offshore dry-bulk cargo barge and tugboat units engaged in the offshore transportation of dry-bulk cargoes.  The Company also owns shifting operations and fleeting facilities for dry cargo barges and tank barges on the Houston Ship Channel, in Freeport and Port Arthur, Texas, and Lakes Charles, Louisiana, and a shipyard for building towboats and performing routine maintenance near the Houston Ship Channel, as well as a two-thirds interest in Osprey, which transports project cargoes and cargo containers by barge.

43

The following table sets forth the Company’s marine transportation segment’s revenues, costs and expenses, operating income and operating margins (dollars in thousands):

   
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2020
   
2019
   
% Change
   
2018
   
% Change
 
Marine transportation revenues
 
$
1,404,265
   
$
1,587,082
     
(12
)%
 
$
1,483,143
     
7
%
                                         
Costs and expenses:
                                       
Costs of sales and operating expenses
   
907,119
     
1,034,758
     
(12
)
   
997,979
     
4
 
Selling, general and administrative
   
111,182
     
122,202
     
(9
)
   
122,421
     
 
Taxes, other than on income
   
35,528
     
34,538
     
3
     
33,020
     
5
 
Depreciation and amortization
   
186,798
     
179,742
     
4
     
182,307
     
(1
)
     
1,240,627
     
1,371,240
     
(10
)
   
1,335,727
     
3
 
Operating income
 
$
163,638
   
$
215,842
     
(24
)%
 
$
147,416
     
46
%
Operating margins
   
11.7
%
   
13.6
%
           
9.9
%
       

The following table shows the marine transportation markets serviced by the Company, the marine transportation revenue distribution, products moved and the drivers of the demand for the products the Company transports:

Markets Serviced
 
2020
Revenue
Distribution
 
Products Moved
 
Drivers
Petrochemicals
 
52%
 
Benzene, Styrene, Methanol, Acrylonitrile, Xylene, Naphtha, Caustic Soda, Butadiene, Propylene
 
Consumer non-durables — 70% Consumer durables — 30%
             
Black Oil
 
26%
 
Residual Fuel Oil, Coker Feedstock, Vacuum Gas Oil, Asphalt, Carbon Black Feedstock, Crude Oil, Natural Gas Condensate, Ship Bunkers
 
Fuel for Power Plants and Ships, Feedstock for Refineries, Road Construction
             
Refined Petroleum Products
 
19%
 
Gasoline, No. 2 Oil, Jet Fuel, Heating Oil, Diesel Fuel, Ethanol
 
Vehicle Usage, Air Travel, Weather Conditions, Refinery Utilization
             
Agricultural Chemicals
 
3%
 
Anhydrous Ammonia, Nitrogen-Based Liquid Fertilizer, Industrial Ammonia
 
Corn, Cotton and Wheat Production, Chemical Feedstock Usage

2020 Compared to 2019

Marine Transportation Revenues

Marine transportation revenues for 2020 decreased 12% compared to 2019. The decrease was primarily due to reduced barge utilization in the inland and coastal markets and decreased term and spot contract pricing in the inland market, each as a result of a reduction in demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic, lower fuel rebills, retirements of three large coastal barges, and planned shipyard activity in the coastal market. These reductions were partially offset by the acquisition of the Savage fleet acquired on April 1, 2020 and the Cenac fleet acquired on March 14, 2019. The 2020 third quarter was impacted by hurricanes and tropical storms along the East and Gulf Coasts and the closure of the Illinois River. The 2020 first quarter and 2019 first six months were each impacted by poor operating conditions and high delay days due to heavy fog and wind along the Gulf Coast, high water on the Mississippi River System, and closures of key waterways as a result of lock maintenance projects, as well as increased shipyard days on large capacity coastal vessels. The 2019 first six months was also impacted by prolonged periods of ice on the Illinois River and a fire at a chemical storage facility on the Houston Ship Channel.  For 2020 and 2019, the inland tank barge fleet contributed 78% and 77%, respectively, and the coastal fleet contributed 22% and 23%, respectively, of marine transportation revenues.  The Savage fleet was quickly integrated into the Company’s own fleet and the former Savage equipment began operating under Company contracts soon after the acquisition closed, with former Savage barges working with the Company’s existing towboats and vice versa resulting in differences in vessel utilization and pricing among individual assets and the consolidated fleet.  Due to this quick integration, it is not practical to provide a specific amount of revenues for the Savage fleet but the acquisition in April 2020 was one of the factors that offset decreases in marine transportation revenues in 2020 as compared to 2019.

44

During 2020 reduced demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic slowdown contributed to lower barge utilization. Inland tank barge utilization levels averaged in the low to mid-90% range during the 2020 first quarter, the mid-80% range during the 2020 second quarter, the low 70% range during the 2020 third quarter, and the high 60% range during the 2020 fourth quarter.  In 2019, inland tank barge utilization levels averaged in the mid-90% range during both the 2019 first and second quarters and the low 90% range during both the 2019 third and fourth quarters.  The 2020 first quarter and full year 2019 each experienced strong demand from petrochemicals, black oil, and refined petroleum products customers.  Extensive delay days due to poor operating conditions and lock maintenance projects in the 2020 first quarter and 2019 first six months slowed the transport of customer cargoes and contributed to strong barge utilization during those periods.

Coastal tank barge utilization levels averaged in the low to mid-80% range during the 2020 first quarter and the mid-70% range during each of the 2020 second, third, and fourth quarters.  In 2019, coastal tank barge utilization levels averaged in the low 80% range during the 2019 first quarter and the mid-80% range during each of the 2019 second, third, and fourth quarters. Barge utilization in the coastal marine fleet continued to be impacted by the oversupply of smaller tank barges in the coastal industry during 2020 and 2019.

The petrochemical market, the Company’s largest market, contributed 52% of marine transportation revenues for 2020, reflecting reduced volumes from Gulf Coast petrochemical plants for both domestic consumption and to terminals for export destinations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.  Also, during the 2020 third quarter, the petrochemical complex along the Gulf Coast was impacted by hurricanes and tropical storms, reducing barge volumes and closing critical waterways for extended periods of time. During 2020, U.S. chemical plant capacity utilization declined to an average in the low to mid-70% range.

The black oil market, which contributed 26% of marine transportation revenues for 2020, reflected reduced demand as refinery production levels and the export of refined petroleum products and fuel oils declined as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact from hurricanes and tropical storms along the Gulf Coast during the third and fourth quarters.  During 2020, U.S. refinery utilization peaked in the low to mid-90% range early in the first quarter and troughed in the high 60% range during the second quarter.  During the third and fourth quarters, refinery utilization stabilized in the low 70% to low 80% range with the low end resulting from significant hurricane and tropical storm activity along the Gulf Coast during September and October and increased to the low 80% range late in the fourth quarter.  During 2020, the Company continued to transport crude oil and natural gas condensate produced from the Permian Basin as well as reduced volumes from the Eagle Ford shale formation in Texas, both along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway with inland vessels and in the Gulf of Mexico with coastal equipment. Additionally, the Company transported volumes of Utica natural gas condensate downriver from the Mid-Atlantic to the Gulf Coast and Canadian and Bakken crude downriver from the Midwest to the Gulf Coast.

The refined petroleum products market, which contributed 19% of marine transportation revenues for 2020, reflected lower volumes in both the inland and coastal markets as a result of reduced demand related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact from hurricanes and tropical storms along the Gulf Coast during the third and fourth quarters.  During 2020, U.S. refinery utilization peaked in the low to mid-90% range early in the first quarter and troughed in the high 60% range during the second quarter.  During the third and fourth quarters, refinery utilization stabilized in the low 70% to low 80% range with the low end resulting from significant hurricane and tropical storm activity along the Gulf Coast during September and October and increased to the low 80% range late in the fourth quarter.

45

The agricultural chemical market, which contributed 3% of marine transportation revenues for 2020, saw modest reductions in demand for transportation of both domestically produced and imported products during the quarter, primarily due to reduced demand associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.

For 2020, the inland operations incurred 10,408 delay days, 22% fewer than the 13,259 delay days that occurred during 2019.  Delay days measure the lost time incurred by a tow (towboat and one or more tank barges) during transit when the tow is stopped due to weather, lock conditions, or other navigational factors. Reduced delay days during 2020 is primarily due to lower barge utilization, despite significant delays associated with hurricane activity along the Gulf Coast during the third quarter. In addition, delay days for the 2020 first quarter and 2019 first six months reflected poor operating conditions due to heavy fog and wind along the Gulf Coast, high water conditions on the Mississippi River System, and closures of key waterways as a result of lock maintenance projects.  The 2019 first six months was also impacted by prolonged periods of ice on the Illinois River and a fire at a chemical storage facility on the Houston Ship Channel.

During both 2020 and 2019, approximately 65% of the inland marine transportation revenues were under term contracts and 35% were spot contract revenues.  These allocations provide the operations with a reasonably predictable revenue stream. Inland time charters, which insulate the Company from revenue fluctuations caused by weather and navigational delays and temporary market declines, represented 66% of the inland revenues under term contracts during 2020 compared to 62% during 2019. Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2020 first quarter increased in the 1% to 3% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 first quarter.  Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2020 second quarter were flat compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 second quarter.  Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2020 third quarter decreased in the 1% to 3% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 third quarter.  Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2020 fourth quarter decreased in the 10% to 12% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 fourth quarter.  Spot contract rates in the 2020 first quarter increased in the 4% to 6% average range compared to the 2019 first quarter. Spot contract rates in the 2020 second quarter decreased in the 5% to 10% average range compared to the 2019 second quarter.  Spot contract rates in the 2020 third quarter decreased approximately 10% compared to the 2019 third quarter. Spot contract rates in the 2020 fourth quarter decreased approximately 25% compared to the 2019 fourth quarter. There was no material rate increase on January 1, 2020, related to annual escalators for labor and the producer price index on a number of inland multi-year contracts.

During 2020 and 2019, approximately 85% and 80%, respectively, of the coastal revenues were under term contracts and 15% and 20%, respectively, were spot contract revenues. Coastal time charters represented approximately 90% of coastal revenues under term contracts during 2020 compared to 85% during 2019.  Spot and term contract pricing in the coastal market are contingent on various factors including geographic location, vessel capacity, vessel type and product serviced.  Rates on coastal term contracts renewed in the 2020 first quarter increased in the 10% to 15% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 first quarter.  Rates on coastal term contracts renewed in the 2020 second quarter were flat compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 second quarter.  Rates on coastal term contracts renewed in both the 2020 third and fourth quarters decreased in the 4% to 6% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2019 third and fourth quarters.  Spot market rates in the 2020 first quarter increased in the 10% to 15% average range compared to the 2019 first quarter.  Spot market rates in each of the 2020 second, third, and fourth quarters were flat compared to the 2019 second, third, and fourth quarters.

Marine Transportation Costs and Expenses

Costs and expenses for 2020 decreased 10% compared to 2019.  Costs of sales and operating expenses for 2020 decreased 12% compared to 2019 primarily due to cost reductions across the segment, including a reduction in towboats during the second and third quarters and a reduction in maintenance expenses, partially offset by the addition of the Savage fleet in April 2020 and the Cenac fleet in March 2019.

The inland marine transportation fleet operated an average of 287 towboats during 2020, of which an average of 52 were chartered, compared to 299 during 2019, of which an average of 75 were chartered. The decrease was primarily due to the chartered towboats released during the 2020 second and third quarters, partially offset by the addition of inland towboats with the Savage acquisition in April 2020. Generally, as demand or anticipated demand increases or decreases, as tank barges are added to or removed from the fleet, as chartered towboat availability changes, or as weather or water conditions dictate, the Company charters in or releases chartered towboats in an effort to balance horsepower needs with current requirements. The Company has historically used chartered towboats for approximately one-fourth of its horsepower requirements.

46

During 2020, the inland operations consumed 47.5 million gallons of diesel fuel compared to 50.0 million gallons consumed during 2019. The average price per gallon of diesel fuel consumed during 2020 was $1.41 per gallon compared to $2.06 per gallon for 2019.  Fuel escalation and de-escalation clauses on term contracts are designed to rebate fuel costs when prices decline and recover additional fuel costs when fuel prices rise; however, there is generally a 30 to 90 day delay before contracts are adjusted. Spot contracts do not have escalators for fuel.

Selling, general and administrative expenses for 2020 decreased 9% compared to 2019.  The decrease is primarily due to cost reduction initiatives throughout the organization as a result of reduced business activity levels due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Taxes, other than on income, for 2020 increased 3% compared to 2019.  The increase is primarily due to higher property taxes on marine transportation equipment, including the Savage and Cenac fleets.

Depreciation and amortization for 2020 increased 4% compared to 2019.  The increase is primarily due to the acquisition of the including the Savage fleet in 2020 and Cenac fleet in 2019.

Marine Transportation Operating Income and Operating Margins

Marine transportation operating income for 2020 decreased 24% compared to 2019.  The operating margin was 11.7% for 2020 compared to 13.6% for 2019.  The decreases in operating income and operating margin were primarily due to reduced barge utilization in the inland and coastal markets and reduced term and spot contract pricing in the inland market, each as a result of a reduction in demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by cost reductions throughout the organization, including chartered towboats released during the 2020 second and third quarters.

2019 Compared to 2018

Marine Transportation Revenues

Marine transportation revenues for 2019 increased 7% compared to 2018.  The increase was primarily due to the addition of the Higman fleet acquired on February 14, 2018, the Targa pressure barge fleet acquired on May 10, 2018, the CGBM inland tank barges acquired on December 14, 2018, and the Cenac fleet acquired on March 14, 2019, as well as improved barge utilization in the coastal market and higher spot and term contract pricing in the inland and coastal markets. Partially offsetting the increase were unusually poor operating conditions due to heavy fog along the Gulf Coast, prolonged periods of ice on the Illinois River, high water on the Mississippi River System, closures of key waterways as a result of lock maintenance projects, extended delays in the Houston Ship Channel, and increased shipyard days on several large capacity coastal vessels during the 2019 first and fourth quarters.  For 2019 and 2018, the inland tank barge fleet contributed 77% and 76%, respectively, and the coastal fleet 23% and 24%, respectively, of marine transportation revenues. The Cenac fleet was quickly integrated into the Company’s own fleet and the Cenac equipment began to operate on the Company’s contracts soon after the acquisition and Cenac barges worked with the Company’s towboats and vice versa resulting in differences in vessel utilization and pricing among individual assets and the consolidated fleet. Due to this quick integration, it is not practical to provide a specific amount of revenues for Cenac but the acquisition in March 2019 was one of the factors that drove increases in marine transportation revenues in 2019 as compared to 2018.

Tank barge utilization levels in the Company’s inland marine transportation markets averaged the mid-90% range during both the 2019 first and second quarters and low 90% range during both the 2019 third and fourth quarters. Strong demand from petrochemicals, black oil, refined petroleum products and agricultural chemicals customers, along with extensive delay days due to poor operating conditions which slowed the transport of customer cargoes, contributed to increased barge utilization during the 2019 first and second quarters.  Better weather during the 2019 third quarter and receding flood waters on the Mississippi River System resulted in fewer delay days and contributed to modestly lower barge utilization during the 2019 third quarter. In the 2019 fourth quarter, weather conditions seasonally deteriorated, however, reduced refinery and chemical plant utilization for many of the Company’s major customers resulted in tank barge utilization remaining in the low 90% range for the quarter.

47

Coastal tank barge utilization levels averaged in the low 80% range during the 2019 first quarter and mid-80% range during each of the 2019 second, third and fourth quarters.  The improvement in barge utilization in 2019 primarily reflected improved customer demand resulting in higher barge utilization in the spot market.  Barge utilization in the coastal marine fleet continued to be impacted by the oversupply of smaller tank barges in the coastal industry.

The petrochemical market, the Company’s largest market, contributed 54% of marine transportation revenues for 2019, reflecting continued stable volumes from Gulf Coast petrochemical plants for both domestic consumption and to terminals for export destinations, and the addition of the Targa pressure barge fleet in May 2018. Low priced domestic natural gas, a basic feedstock for the United States petrochemical industry, provides the industry with a competitive advantage relative to naphtha-based foreign petrochemical producers.  In addition, favorable commodity prices and the addition of new petrochemical industry capacity in 2018 and 2019 benefited the market.

The black oil market, which contributed 23% of marine transportation revenues for 2019, reflected strong demand from steady refinery production levels and the export of refined petroleum products and fuel oils. The Company continued to transport crude oil and natural gas condensate produced from the Eagle Ford and Permian Basin shale formations in Texas, both along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway with inland vessels and in the Gulf of Mexico with coastal vessels. Additionally, the Company transported increased volumes of Utica natural gas condensate downriver from the Mid-Atlantic to the Gulf Coast and Canadian and Bakken crude downriver from the Midwest to the Gulf Coast.

The refined petroleum products market, which contributed 19% of marine transportation revenues for 2019, reflected increased volumes in the inland market, due in part to the acquisition of Cenac, and stable volumes in coastal.

The agricultural chemical market, which contributed 4% of marine transportation revenues for 2019, saw typical seasonal demand for transportation of both domestically produced and imported products during 2019.

For 2019, the inland operations incurred 13,259 delay days, 32% more than the 10,046 delay days that occurred during 2018. The increase in delay days reflected unusually poor operating conditions during 2019 due to heavy fog along the Gulf Coast, extended periods of ice on the Illinois River, near record high water conditions on the Mississippi River System, closures of key waterways as a result of lock maintenance projects and extended delays in the Houston Ship Channel.  Flood waters on the Mississippi River System receded in the beginning of August 2019.

During both 2019 and 2018, approximately 65% of marine transportation inland revenues were under term contracts and 35% were spot contract revenues.  Inland time charters, which insulate the Company from revenue fluctuations caused by weather and navigational delays and temporary market declines, represented 62% of inland revenues under term contracts during 2019 compared to 59% during 2018.

Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2019 first quarter increased in the 4% to 6% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2018 first quarter. Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2019 second quarter increased in the 5% to 8% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2018 second quarter. Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2019 third quarter increased in the 3% to 4% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2018 third quarter.  Rates on inland term contracts renewed in the 2019 fourth quarter increased in the 2% to 4% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2018 fourth quarter.  Spot contract rates in the 2019 first quarter increased approximately 20% compared to the 2018 first quarter.  Spot contracts rates in both the 2019 second and third quarters increased approximately 15% compared to the 2018 second and third quarters.  Spot contract rates in the 2019 fourth quarter increased approximately 5% compared to the 2018 fourth quarter.  Effective January 1, 2019, annual escalators for labor and the producer price index on a number of inland multi-year contracts resulted in rate increases on those contracts of approximately 1.7%, excluding fuel.

48

During both 2019 and 2018, approximately 80% of the coastal revenues were under term contracts and 20% were spot contract revenues. Coastal time charters which insulate the Company from revenue fluctuations caused by weather and navigational delays and temporary market declines, represented approximately 85% of coastal revenues under term contracts during both 2019 and 2018.  Spot and term contract pricing in the coastal market are contingent on various factors including geographic location, vessel capacity, vessel type and product serviced.  Rates on coastal term contracts renewed in each of the 2019 first, second, and third quarters increased in the 4% to 6% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2018 first, second, and third quarters.  Rates on coastal term contracts renewed in the 2019 fourth quarter increased in the 5% to 15% average range compared to term contracts renewed in the 2018 fourth quarter. Spot contract rates in both the 2019 first and second quarters increased in the 10% to 15% average range compared to the 2018 first and second quarters.  Spot contract rates in the 2019 third quarter increased approximately 20% compared to the 2018 third quarter.  Spot contract rates in the 2019 fourth quarter increased approximately 10% compared to the 2018 fourth quarter.

Marine Transportation Costs and Expenses

Costs and expenses for 2019 increased 3% compared to 2018. Costs of sales and operating expenses for 2019 increased 4% compared to 2018, primarily due to the addition of the Higman fleet in February 2018 and the Cenac fleet in March 2019, partially offset by lower fuel costs.

The inland marine transportation fleet operated an average of 299 towboats during 2019, of which an average of 75 were chartered, compared to 278 during 2018, of which an average of 77 were chartered. The increase was primarily due to the addition of inland towboats with the Cenac acquisition on March 14, 2019.  Generally, as demand, or anticipated demand, increases or decreases, as tank barges are added to or removed from the fleet, as chartered towboat availability changes, or as weather or water conditions dictate, the Company charters in or releases chartered towboats in an effort to balance horsepower needs with current requirements. The Company has historically used chartered towboats for approximately one-fourth of its horsepower requirements.

During 2019, the inland operations consumed 50.0 million gallons of diesel fuel compared to 49.3 million gallons consumed during 2018. The average price per gallon of diesel fuel consumed during 2019 was $2.06 per gallon compared to $2.20 per gallon for 2018. Fuel escalation and de-escalation clauses on term contracts are designed to rebate fuel costs when prices decline and recover additional fuel costs when fuel prices rise; however, there is generally a 30 to 90 day delay before the contracts are adjusted. Spot contracts do not have escalators for fuel.

Selling, general and administrative expenses for 2019 was consistent with 2018.  The 2019 fourth quarter included $1,447,000 related to severance and early retirement expense.  The 2019 year also included Cenac acquisition related costs of $442,000 as well as salaries and other related costs of personnel acquired in the Higman acquisition. In 2018, there were transaction costs of $3,261,000, consisting primarily of legal, audit and other professional fees associated with the Higman acquisition and severance charges of $2,591,000 associated with the integration of Higman into the Company and further reduction in headcount in the coastal sector in order to manage costs, both of which were incurred in the 2018 first quarter.

Taxes, other than on income for 2019 increased 5% compared to 2018, mainly due to higher property taxes on marine transportation equipment, including the Higman, Targa, CGBM, and Cenac fleets.

Marine Transportation Operating Income and Operating Margins

Marine transportation operating income for 2019 increased 46% compared to 2018. The operating margin was 13.6% for 2019 compared to 9.9% for 2018.  The operating income increase in 2019 compared to 2018 was primarily due to the acquisitions of Higman, Targa’s pressure barge fleet, CGBM’s inland tank barges, and Cenac’s fleet as well as improved barge utilization in the coastal market and higher spot and term contract pricing in the inland and coastal markets, partially offset by significant weather and navigational challenges in 2019.

Distribution and Services

The Company, through its distribution and services segment, sells genuine replacement parts, provides service mechanics to overhaul and repair engines, transmissions, reduction gears and related oilfield services equipment, rebuilds component parts or entire diesel engines, transmissions and reduction gears, and related equipment used in oilfield services, marine, power generation, on-highway and other industrial applications. The Company also rents equipment including generators, industrial compressors, railcar movers, and high capacity lift trucks for use in a variety of industrial markets, and manufactures and remanufactures oilfield service equipment, including pressure pumping units, for land-based oilfield service customers.

49

The following table sets forth the Company’s distribution and services segment’s revenues, costs and expenses, operating income and operating margins (dollars in thousands):

   
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2020
   
2019
   
% Change
   
2018
   
% Change
 
Distribution and services revenues
 
$
767,143
   
$
1,251,317
     
(39
)%
 
$
1,487,554
     
(16
)%
                                         
Costs and expenses:
                                       
Costs of sales and operating expenses
   
604,238
     
995,288
     
(39
)
   
1,162,967
     
(14
)
Selling, general and administrative
   
140,449
     
145,473
     
(3
)
   
149,756
     
(3
)
Taxes, other than on income
   
6,392
     
7,357
     
(13
)
   
6,177
     
19
 
Depreciation and amortization
   
28,255
     
35,998
     
(22
)
   
39,349
     
(9
)
     
779,334
     
1,184,116
     
(34
)
   
1,358,249
     
(13
)
Operating income
 
$
(12,191
)
 
$
67,201
     
(118
)%
 
$
129,305
     
(48
)%
Operating margins
   
(1.6
)%
   
5.4
%
           
8.7
%
       

The following table shows the markets serviced by the Company, the revenue distribution, and the customers for each market:

Markets Serviced
 
2020
Revenue
Distribution
 
Customers
Commercial and Industrial
 
74%
 
Inland River Carriers — Dry and Liquid, Offshore Towing — Dry and Liquid, Offshore Oilfield Services — Drilling Rigs & Supply Boats, Harbor Towing, Dredging, Great Lakes Ore Carriers, Pleasure Crafts, On and Off-Highway Transportation, Power Generation, Standby Power Generation, Pumping Stations
         
Oil and Gas
 
26%
 
Oilfield Services, Oil and Gas Operators and Producers

2020 Compared to 2019

Distribution and Services Revenues

Distribution and services revenues for 2020 decreased 39% compared to 2019.  The decrease was primarily attributable to reduced activity in the oilfield as a result of oil price volatility throughout 2019 and 2020, the extensive downturn in oil and gas exploration due to low oil prices, caused in part by the COVID-19 pandemic, an oversupply of pressure pumping equipment in North America, and reduced spending and enhanced cash flow discipline for the Company’s major oilfield customers.  As a result, customer demand and incremental orders for new and remanufactured pressure pumping equipment and sales of new and overhauled transmissions and related parts and service declined during 2020.  For 2020 and 2019, the oil and gas market contributed 26% and 53%, respectively, of the distribution and services revenues.

The commercial and industrial market revenues decreased compared to 2019 primarily due to reductions in on-highway and power generation service demand as a result of the COVID‑19 pandemic and the resulting economic slowdown and nationwide, state, and local stay-at-home orders, partially offset by contributions from the Convoy acquisition.  Demand in the marine business was also down due to reduced major overhaul activity and new engine sales.  For 2020 and 2019, the commercial and industrial market contributed 74% and 47%, respectively, of the distribution and services revenues.

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Distribution and Services Costs and Expenses

Costs and expenses for 2020 decreased 34% compared to 2019.  Costs of sales and operating expenses for 2020 decreased 39% compared to 2019, reflecting lower demand for new and overhauled transmissions and related parts and service and reduced demand for new pressure pumping equipment in the oil and gas market.

Selling, general and administrative expenses for 2020 decreased 3% compared to 2019.  The decrease was primarily due to cost reduction initiatives throughout the organization as a result of reduced business activity levels due to the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by the Convoy acquisition, a bad debt expense charge of $3,339,000 as a result of the bankruptcy of a large oil and gas customer, and $1,354,000 of severance expense as a result of continued workforce reductions, each recorded during the 2020 second quarter.

Depreciation and amortization for 2020 decreased 22% compared to 2019.  The decrease was primarily due to lower amortization of intangible assets other than goodwill, which were impaired during the 2020 first quarter.

Distribution and Services Operating Income (Loss) and Operating Margins

Operating income for the distribution and services segment for 2020 decreased 118% compared to 2019.  The operating margin was (1.6)% for 2020 compared to 5.4% for 2019. The results primarily reflected a decrease in margins in the commercial and industrial market and losses in the oil and gas market.

2019 Compared to 2018

Distribution and Services Revenues

Distribution and services revenues for 2019 decreased 16% compared to 2018. The decrease was primarily attributable to reduced activity in the oilfield as a result of oil price volatility in late 2018 and early 2019, an oversupply of pressure pumping equipment in North America, and reduced spending and enhanced cash flow discipline for the Company’s major oilfield customers.  During the first half of 2019, although oilfield activity levels and new orders for the Company’s oilfield related products and services declined as compared to the same period in 2018, the segment benefited from a significant backlog of manufacturing orders for new and remanufactured pressure pumping equipment received in the 2018 third and fourth quarters.  Most of these orders were completed in the 2019 first and second quarters as oilfield activity levels further declined for many of the Company’s customers.  As a result, customer demand and incremental orders for new and remanufactured pressure pumping equipment declined significantly for the duration of 2019, and sales of new and overhauled transmissions and related parts and service were minimal during the 2019 third and fourth quarters.  For 2019, the oil and gas market represented approximately 53% of distribution and services revenues.

The commercial and industrial market, which contributed 47% of distribution and services revenues for 2019, saw increased service levels and new engine sales in the marine repair business for much of the year, although activity levels in the inland market declined during the 2019 third quarter as many customers reduced maintenance activities following months of river flooding conditions and during the summer harvest season.  The commercial and industrial market also experienced increased demand for power generation equipment compared to 2018, including the sale and installation of significant back-up power systems for major data centers in the 2019 first and second quarters.  Activity levels for the Company’s specialty rental units, back-up power systems, and refrigeration equipment seasonally increased in anticipation of and as a result of summer storms and warm weather conditions in the 2019 second and third quarters.  Demand in the nuclear power generation market was stable compared to 2018.

Distribution and Services Costs and Expenses

Costs and expenses for 2019 decreased 13%, compared to 2018. Costs of sales and operating expenses for 2019 decreased 14% compared to 2018, reflecting lower demand for new and remanufactured pressure pumping equipment and reduced demand for new and overhauled transmissions and related parts and service in the oil and gas market.

51

Selling, general and administrative expenses for 2019 decreased 3%, compared to 2018, primarily due to lower incentive compensation and professional fees, partially offset by $3,310,000 related to severance and early retirement expense incurred in the 2019 fourth quarter.

Depreciation and amortization expenses for 2019 decreased 9%, compared to 2018 primarily due to sales of distribution and services facilities resulting in lower depreciation.

Distribution and Services Operating Income and Operating Margins

Operating income for the distribution and services segment for 2019 decreased 48% compared to 2018. The operating margin for 2019 was 5.4% compared to 8.7% for 2018. The results primarily reflected decreased sales in higher margin oil and gas related revenue and increased sales of lower margin power generation equipment.

General Corporate Expenses

General corporate expenses for 2020, 2019 and 2018 were $11,050,000, $13,643,000 and $35,590,000, respectively.  The general corporate expenses for 2018 are higher compared to both 2020 and 2019 primarily due to a one-time non-deductible expense of $18,057,000 in the 2018 second quarter related to the retirement of the Company’s executive Chairman, effective April 30, 2018, and higher incentive compensation accruals.

Gain on Disposition of Assets

The Company reported net gains on disposition of assets of $118,000, $8,152,000, and $1,968,000 in 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.  The net gains were predominantly from the sales or retirements of marine equipment and distribution and services facilities.

Other Income and Expenses

The following table sets forth impairments and other charges, lease cancellation costs, other income, noncontrolling interests, and interest expense (dollars in thousands):

   
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2020
   
2019
   
% Change
   
2018
   
% Change
 
Impairments and other charges
 
$
(561,274
)
 
$
(35,525
)
   
(1,480
)%
 
$
(85,407
)
   
(58
)%
Lease cancellation costs
   
     
     
%
   
(2,403
)
   
(100
)%
Other income
   
8,147
     
3,787
     
115
%
   
5,726
     
(34
)%
Noncontrolling interests
   
(954
)
   
(672
)
   
42
%
   
(626
)
   
7
%
Interest expense
   
(48,739
)
   
(55,994
)
   
(13
)%
   
(46,856
)
   
20
%

Impairments and Other Charges

For 2020, impairment and other charges includes $561,274,000 before taxes, $433,341,000 after taxes, or $7.24 per share, non-cash charges related to inventory write-downs, impairment of long-lived assets, including intangible assets and property and equipment, and impairment of goodwill in the distribution and services segment.

For 2019 impairment and other charges includes a $35,525,000 non-cash pre-tax write-down of oilfield and pressure pumping related inventory in the distribution and services segment.  The after-tax effect of the charge was $27,978,000 or $0.47 per share.

For 2018, impairment and other charges includes $82,705,000 before taxes, $65,337,000 after taxes, or $1.09 per share, non-cash charges related to impairment of long-lived assets and $2,702,000 impairment of goodwill in the marine transportation segment.

See Note 7, Impairments and Other Charges for additional information.

52

Other Income

Other income for 2020, 2019 and 2018 includes income of $6,186,000, $3,454,000 and $4,517,000, respectively, for all components of net benefit costs except the service cost component related to the Company’s defined benefit plans.

Interest Expense

The following table sets forth average debt, average interest rate, and capitalized interest excluded from interest expense (dollars in thousands):

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2020
   
2019
   
2018
 
Average debt
 
$
1,567,523
   
$
1,502,044
   
$
1,370,905
 
Average interest rate
   
3.1
%
   
3.7
%
   
3.5
%
Capitalized Interest
 
$
   
$
1,003
   
$
2,206
 

Interest expense for 2020 decreased 13% compared to 2019, primarily due to a lower average interest rate, partially offset by higher average debt outstanding as a result of borrowings to finance the Convoy acquisition in January 2020 and the Savage acquisition in April 2020.  Interest expense for 2019 increased 20% compared to 2018 primarily due to borrowings to finance the Higman acquisition in February 2018, the acquisition of Targa’s pressure barge fleet in May 2018, the purchase of the 155,000 barrel coastal ATB under construction in June 2018, the acquisition of CGBM’s tank barges in December 2018, and the acquisition of Cenac’s fleet in March 2019.

(Provision) Benefit for Taxes on Income

During 2020, pursuant to provisions of the CARES Act, net operating losses generated during 2018 through 2020 were used to offset taxable income generated between 2013 through 2017.  Net operating losses carried back to tax years 2013 through 2017 were applied at the higher federal statutory tax rate of 35% compared to the statutory rate of 21% currently in effect at December 31, 2020.  The Company generated an effective tax rate benefit in 2020 as a result of such carrybacks.

Financial Condition, Capital Resources and Liquidity

Balance Sheet

The following table sets forth the significant components of the balance sheets (dollars in thousands):

   
December 31,
 
 
2020
   
2019
   
% Change
   
2018
   
% Change
 
Assets:
                             
Current assets
 
$
1,047,971
   
$
917,579
     
14
%
 
$
1,096,489
     
(16
)%
Property and equipment, net
   
3,917,070
     
3,777,110
     
4
     
3,539,802
     
7
 
Operating lease right-of-use assets
   
174,317
     
159,641
     
9
     
     
N/A
 
Investment in affiliates
   
2,689
     
2,025
     
33
     
2,495
     
(19
)
Goodwill
   
657,800
     
953,826
     
(31
)
   
953,826
     
 
Other intangibles, net
   
68,979
     
210,682
     
(67
)
   
224,197
     
(6
)
Other assets
   
55,348
     
58,234
     
(5
)
   
54,785
     
6
 
   
$
5,924,174
   
$
6,079,097
     
(3
)%
 
$
5,871,594
     
4
%
                                         
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity:
                                       
Current liabilities
 
$
466,032
   
$
514,115
     
(9
)%
 
$
607,782
     
(15
)%
Long-term debt, net — less current portion
   
1,468,546
     
1,369,751
     
7
     
1,410,169
     
(3
)
Deferred income taxes
   
606,844
     
588,204
     
3
     
542,785
     
8
 
Operating lease liabilities — less current portion
   
163,496
     
139,457
     
17
     
     
N/A
 
Other long-term liabilities
   
131,703
     
95,978
     
37
     
94,557
     
2
 
Total equity
   
3,087,553
     
3,371,592
     
(8
)
   
3,216,301
     
5
 
   
$
5,924,174
   
$
6,079,097
     
(3
)%
 
$
5,871,594
     
4
%

53

2020 Compared to 2019

Current assets as of December 31, 2020 increased 14% compared to December 31, 2019.  Trade accounts receivable decreased 17% driven by decreased business activity in the distribution and services segment, primarily related to the oil and gas market and reduced barge utilization in the marine transportation segment, partially offset by trade accounts receivable acquired from Convoy.  Other accounts receivable increased 173%, primarily due to federal income taxes receivable of $188,177,000 recorded for net operating losses generated during tax years 2019 and 2020 offset against taxable income during tax years 2014 through 2017 under provisions of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”).  Inventories, net decreased by 12% primarily due to reduced business activity levels in the oil and gas market and write downs of oilfield and pressure pumping related inventory, partially offset by inventory acquired from Convoy.

Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation, at December 31, 2020 increased 4% compared to December 31, 2019.  The increase reflected $134,905,000 of capital expenditures (net of a decrease in accrued capital expenditures) for 2020, more fully described under Cash Flows and Capital Expenditures above, and $250,544,000 of acquisitions, primarily including the six newly constructed inland pressure barges purchased in 2020 and the aggregate fair value of the property and equipment acquired in the Savage and Convoy acquisitions, partially offset by $210,686,000 of depreciation expense, $16,395,000 of impairment charges, and $18,408,000 of property disposals during 2020.

Operating lease right-of-use assets as of December 31, 2020 increased 9% compared to December 31, 2019, primarily due to leases acquired as part of the Savage and Convoy acquisitions.

Goodwill as of December 31, 2020 decreased 31% compared to December 31, 2019, primarily due to a goodwill impairment in the distribution and services segment, partially offset by goodwill recorded as part of the Savage and Convoy acquisitions.

Other intangibles, net, as of December 31, 2020 decreased 67% compared to December 31, 2019, primarily due to impairments of customer relationship, tradename, and distributorship assets in the distribution and services segment as well as amortization of intangibles, partially offset by intangible assets recorded as part of the Convoy and Savage acquisitions.

Current liabilities as of December 31, 2020 decreased 9% compared to December 31, 2019. Accounts payable decreased 21%, primarily due to decreased shipyard maintenance accruals on coastal equipment and reduced activity levels in both the marine transportation and distribution and services segments, partially offset by accounts payable assumed in the Convoy acquisition. Accrued liabilities decreased 5%, primarily due to lower accrued incentive compensation during 2020, partially offset by accrued payroll taxes deferred under provisions of the CARES Act.  Deferred revenues increased 6%, primarily reflecting progress billings for new projects in the distribution and services oil and gas market, partially offset by reduced business activity in the marine transportation segment.

Long-term debt, net – less current portion, as of December 31, 2020 increased 7% compared to December 31, 2019, primarily reflecting additional borrowings of $250,000,000 under the Revolving Credit Facility, partially offset by the repayment of $150,000,000 of 2.72% unsecured senior notes upon maturity.  Net debt discounts and deferred issuance costs were $6,454,000 at December 31, 2020 and $5,249,000 (excluding $2,650,000 attributable to the Revolving Credit Facility included in other assets on the balance sheet) at December 31, 2019.

Deferred income taxes as of December 31, 2020 increased 3% compared to December 31, 2019, primarily reflecting the 2020 deferred tax provision of $25,163,000.

Operating lease liabilities – less current portion, as of December 31, 2020 increased 17% compared to December 31, 2019, primarily due to leases acquired as part of the Savage and Convoy acquisitions.

Other long-term liabilities as of December 31, 2020 increased 37% compared to December 31, 2019, primarily due to an increase in pension liabilities and accrued payroll taxes deferred under provisions of the CARES Act, partially offset by amortization of intangible liabilities.

54

Total equity as of December 31, 2020 decreased 8% compared to December 31, 2019. The decrease was primarily the result of a net loss attributable to Kirby of $272,546,000 for 2020 and tax withholdings of $3,193,000 on restricted stock and RSU vestings, partially offset by an increase in additional paid-in capital due to amortization of unearned share-based compensation of $14,722,000.

2019 Compared to 2018

Current assets as of December 31, 2019 decreased 16% compared to December 31, 2018. Trade accounts receivable decreased 9% mainly due to decreased activities in the distribution and services oil and gas market, partially offset by increased activities in the inland marine transportation market. Inventories, net, decreased 31%, primarily reflecting lower inventory levels due to reduced business activity levels in the oil and gas market and write-downs of oilfield and pressure pumping related inventory of $35,525,000.

Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation, at December 31, 2019 increased 7% compared to December 31, 2018. The increase reflected $234,289,000 of capital expenditures for 2019, more fully described under Cash Flows and Capital Expenditures above, the fair value of the property and equipment acquired in the Cenac acquisition of $247,122,000, and the nine inland tank barges purchased during 2019 for $13,040,000, less $204,592,000 of depreciation expense and $52,150,000 of property disposals during 2019.

Operating lease right-of-use assets increased due to the adoption of Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) 2016-02 “Leases (Topic 842)” (“ASU 2016-02”) on January 1, 2019.

Other intangibles, net, as of December 31, 2019 decreased 6% compared to December 31, 2018, primarily due to amortization of intangibles other than goodwill.

Other assets at December 31, 2019 increased 6% compared to December 31, 2018 primarily due to the reclassification of unamortized debt issuance costs of $2,650,000 attributable to the Revolving Credit Facility to other assets.

Current liabilities as of December 31, 2019 decreased 15% compared to December 31, 2018. Accounts payable decreased 26%, primarily due to reduced business activity levels in the distribution and services oil and gas market. Accrued liabilities decreased 4% primarily due to lower accrued employee incentive compensation during 2019.  Current portion of operating lease liabilities increased due to the adoption of ASU 2016-02 on January 1, 2019.  Deferred revenues decreased 46%, primarily reflecting reduced business activity levels in the distribution and services oil and gas market.

Long-term debt, net — less current portion, as of December 31, 2019 decreased 3% compared to December 31, 2018, primarily reflecting payments of $417,373,000 on the amended and restated Revolving Credit Facility offset by the addition of the five-year Term Loan on March 27, 2019 with $375,000,000 outstanding as of December 31, 2019. Net debt discount and deferred issuance costs were $7,899,000 (of which $2,650,000 attributable to the Revolving Credit Facility is included in other assets on the balance sheet) and $7,204,000 as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.

Deferred income taxes as of December 31, 2019 increased 8% compared to December 31, 2018, primarily reflecting the 2019 deferred tax provision of $46,839,000.

Operating lease liabilities increased due to the adoption of ASU 2016-02 on January 1, 2019.

Other long-term liabilities as of December 31, 2019 increased 2% compared to December 31, 2018. The increase was primarily due to accrued pension liabilities, offset by a decrease due to the adoption of ASU 2016-02 on January 1, 2019 and the resulting reclassification of unfavorable leases to operating lease right-of-use assets and the reclassification of deferred rent liabilities to long-term operating lease liabilities and contributions of $3,064,000 to the Higman pension plan during 2019.

Total equity as of December 31, 2019 increased 5% compared to December 31, 2018. The increase was primarily the result of $142,347,000 of net earnings attributable to Kirby for 2019, and an increase in additional paid-in capital of $12,552,000, primarily due to employee stock awards.

55

Retirement Plans

The Company sponsors a defined benefit plan for its inland vessel personnel and shore based tankermen. The plan benefits are based on an employee’s years of service and compensation. The plan assets consist primarily of equity and fixed income securities. The Company’s pension plan funding strategy is to make annual contributions in amounts equal to or greater than amounts necessary to meet minimum government funding requirements. No pension contributions were made in 2020, 2019 or 2018. The fair value of plan assets was $357,801,000 and $319,176,000 at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.

On April 12, 2017, the Company amended its pension plan to cease all benefit accruals for periods after May 31, 2017 for certain participants. Participants grandfathered and not impacted were those, as of the close of business on May 31, 2017, who either (a) had completed 15 years of pension service or (b) had attained age 50 and completed 10 years of pension service. Participants non-grandfathered are eligible to receive discretionary 401(k) plan contributions.

On February 14, 2018, with the acquisition of Higman, the Company assumed Higman’s pension plan for its inland vessel personnel and office staff. On March 27, 2018, the Company amended the Higman pension plan to close it to all new entrants and cease all benefit accruals for periods after May 15, 2018 for all participants. The Company did not incur any one-time charges related to this amendment but the Higman pension plan’s projected benefit obligation decreased by $3,081,000. The Company made contributions to the Higman pension plan of $797,000 in 2020 for the 2019 plan year, $1,438,000 in 2020 for the 2020 plan year, $1,615,000 in 2019 for the 2018 plan year, $1,449,000 in 2019 for the 2019 plan year, $6,717,000 in 2018 for the 2016 and 2017 plan years and $1,385,000 in 2018 for the 2018 year. The fair value of plan assets was $37,336,000 and $39,021,000 at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.

The Company’s investment strategy focuses on total return on invested assets (capital appreciation plus dividend and interest income). The primary objective in the investment management of assets is to achieve long-term growth of principal while avoiding excessive risk. Risk is managed through diversification of investments within and among asset classes, as well as by choosing securities that have an established trading and underlying operating history.

The Company makes various assumptions when determining defined benefit plan costs including, but not limited to, the current discount rate and the expected long-term return on plan assets. Discount rates are determined annually and are based on a yield curve that consists of a hypothetical portfolio of high quality corporate bonds with maturities matching the projected benefit cash flows. The Company used discount rates of 2.8% for the Kirby pension plan and 2.9% for the Higman pension plan in 2020 and 3.5% for each plan in 2019, in determining its benefit obligations. The Company estimates that every 0.1% decrease in the discount rate results in an increase in the accumulated benefit obligation (“ABO”) of approximately $8,631,000. The Company assumed that plan assets would generate a long-term rate of return of 6.75% and 7.0% in 2020 and 2019, respectively. The Company developed its expected long-term rate of return assumption by evaluating input from investment consultants and comparing historical returns for various asset classes with its actual and targeted plan investments. The Company believes that long-term asset allocation, on average, will approximate the targeted allocation.

56

Long-Term Financing

The following table summarizes the Company’s outstanding debt (in thousands):

 
December 31,
 
   
2020
   
2019
 
Long-term debt, including current portion:
           
Revolving Credit Facility due March 27, 2024 (a)
 
$
250,000
   
$
 
Term Loan due March 27, 2024 (a)
   
375,000
     
375,000
 
2.72% senior notes due February 27, 2020
   
     
150,000
 
3.29% senior notes due February 27, 2023
   
350,000
     
350,000
 
4.2% senior notes due March 1, 2028
   
500,000
     
500,000
 
Credit line due June 30, 2021
   
     
 
Bank notes payable
   
40
     
16
 
     
1,475,040
     
1,375,016
 
Unamortized debt discount and issuance costs (b)
   
(6,454
)
   
(5,249
)
   
$
1,468,586
   
$
1,369,767
 

(a)
Variable interest rate of 1.5% and 2.9% at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
(b)
Excludes $2,650,000 attributable to the Revolving Credit Facility included in other assets at December 31, 2019.

The Company has an amended and restated credit agreement (“Credit Agreement”) with a group of commercial banks, with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. as the administrative agent bank, allowing for an $850,000,000 revolving credit facility (“Revolving Credit Facility”) and an unsecured term loan (“Term Loan”) with a maturity date of March 27, 2024.  The Term Loan is repayable in quarterly installments currently scheduled to commence September 30, 2023, with $343,750,000 due on March 27, 2024.  The Term Loan is prepayable, in whole or in part, without penalty.  During 2019, the Company repaid $125,000,000 under the Term Loan prior to the originally scheduled installments.  The Revolving Credit Facility includes a $25,000,000 commitment which may be used for standby letters of credit. Outstanding letters of credit under the Revolving Credit Facility were $5,063,000 and available borrowing capacity was $594,937,000 as of December 31, 2020.

On February 27, 2020, upon maturity, the Company repaid in full $150,000,000 of 2.72% unsecured senior notes.

Outstanding letters of credit under the $10,000,000 credit line were $1,007,000 and available borrowing capacity was $8,993,000 as of December 31, 2020.

As of December 31, 2020, the Company was in compliance with all covenants under its debt instruments.  For additional information about the Company’s debt instruments, see Note 5, Long-Term Debt.

Treasury Stock Purchases

The Company did not purchase any treasury stock during 2020 or 2019.  During 2018, the Company purchased 11,000 shares of its common stock for $776,000, for an average price of $69.61 per share pursuant to a stock trading plan entered into with a brokerage firm pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  As of February 19, 2021, the Company had approximately 1,400,000 shares available under its existing repurchase authorizations. Historically, treasury stock purchases have been financed through operating cash flows and borrowings under the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility. The Company is authorized to purchase its common stock on the New York Stock Exchange and in privately negotiated transactions. When purchasing its common stock, the Company is subject to price, trading volume and other market considerations. Shares purchased may be used for reissuance upon the exercise of stock options or the granting of other forms of incentive compensation, in future acquisitions for stock or for other appropriate corporate purposes.

57

Liquidity and Capital Resources

The Company generated net cash provided by operating activities of $444,940,000, $511,813,000, and $346,999,000 for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. The decline in 2020 was driven by decreased revenues and operating income in both the marine transportation and distribution and services segments.  The decrease in the marine transportation segment was driven by decreased barge utilization in the inland and coastal markets and decreased term and spot contract pricing in the inland market, each as a result of a reduction in demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by the Savage acquisition in April 2020 and the Cenac acquisition in March 2019.  The decline was also partially offset by changes in certain operating assets and liabilities primarily related to reduced incentive compensation payouts in the 2020 first quarter and a larger decrease in trade accounts receivable compared to 2019, driven by reduced business activity levels in both the marine transportation and distribution and services segments.  In addition, during 2020, the Company received a tax refund of $30,606,000 for its 2018 tax return related to net operating losses being carried back to offset taxable income generated during 2013.  During February 2021, the Company received a tax refund of $119,493,000, including accrued interest, for its 2019 tax return.

The increase in 2019 was driven by increased revenues and operating income in the marine transportation segment driven by the acquisitions of the Higman fleet in February 2018, the Targa fleet in May 2018, the CGBM barges in December 2018, and the Cenac fleet in March 2019, as well as improved barge utilization in the coastal market and higher spot and term pricing in the inland and coastal markets. The increase was also due to a net increase in cash flows from the change in operating assets and liabilities of $153,953,000, primarily due to a decrease in inventories reflecting reduced business activity levels in the distribution and services segment in 2019 compared to an increase in 2018.

Funds generated from operations are available for acquisitions, capital expenditure projects, common stock repurchases, repayments of borrowings and for other corporate and operating requirements. In addition to net cash flow provided by operating activities, as of February 19, 2021, the Company had cash equivalents of $69,014,000, availability of $704,937,000 under its Revolving Credit Facility and $8,829,000 available under its Credit Line.

Neither the Company, nor any of its subsidiaries, is obligated on any debt instrument, swap agreement, or any other financial instrument or commercial contract which has a rating trigger, except for pricing grids on its Credit Agreement.

The Company expects to continue to fund expenditures for acquisitions, capital construction projects, common stock repurchases, repayment of borrowings, and for other operating requirements from a combination of available cash and cash equivalents, funds generated from operating activities and available financing arrangements.

The Revolving Credit Facility’s commitment is in the amount of $850,000,000 and expires March 27, 2024. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had $594,937,000 available under the Revolving Credit Facility. The 3.29% senior unsecured notes do not mature until February 27, 2023, and require no prepayments. The 4.2% senior unsecured notes do not mature until March 1, 2028 and require no prepayments.  The outstanding balance of the Term Loan is subject to quarterly installments, currently beginning September 30, 2023, with $343,750,000 due on March 27, 2024. The Term Loan is prepayable, in whole or in part, without penalty.

There are numerous factors that may negatively impact the Company’s cash flow in 2021. For a list of significant risks and uncertainties that could impact cash flows, see Note 14, Contingencies and Commitments in the financial statements, and Item 1A — Risk Factors. Amounts available under the Company’s existing financing arrangements are subject to the Company continuing to meet the covenants of the credit facilities as described in Note 5, Long-Term Debt in the financial statements.

The Company has issued guaranties or obtained standby letters of credit and performance bonds supporting performance by the Company and its subsidiaries of contractual or contingent legal obligations of the Company and its subsidiaries incurred in the ordinary course of business. The aggregate notional value of these instruments is $23,180,000 at December 31, 2020, including $13,586,000 in letters of credit and $9,594,000 in performance bonds. All of these instruments have an expiration date within three years. The Company does not believe demand for payment under these instruments is likely and expects no material cash outlays to occur in connection with these instruments.

58

All of the Company’s marine transportation term contracts contain fuel escalation clauses, or the customer pays for the fuel. However, there is generally a 30 to 90 day delay before contracts are adjusted depending on the specific contract. In general, the fuel escalation clauses are effective over the long-term in allowing the Company to recover changes in fuel costs due to fuel price changes. However, the short-term effectiveness of the fuel escalation clauses can be affected by a number of factors including, but not limited to, specific terms of the fuel escalation formulas, fuel price volatility, navigating conditions, tow sizes, trip routing, and the location of loading and discharge ports that may result in the Company over or under recovering its fuel costs. The Company’s spot contract rates generally reflect current fuel prices at the time the contract is signed but do not have escalators for fuel.

During the last three years, inflation has had a relatively minor effect on the financial results of the Company. The marine transportation segment has long-term contracts which generally contain cost escalation clauses whereby certain costs, including fuel as noted above, can be passed through to its customers. Spot contract rates include the cost of fuel and are subject to market volatility. The repair portion of the distribution and services segment is based on prevailing current market rates.

Contractual Obligations

The contractual obligations of the Company and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2020 consisted of the following (in thousands):

 
Payments Due By Period
 
   
Total
   
Less Than
1 Year
   
2-3
Years
   
4-5
Years
   
After
5 Years
 
Long-term debt
 
$
1,475,040
   
$
40
   
$
381,250
   
$
593,750
   
$
500,000
 
Non-cancelable operating leases — barges
   
43,415
     
9,511
     
13,235
     
8,475
     
12,194
 
Non-cancelable operating leases — towing vessels (a)
   
34,712
     
6,010
     
9,159
     
9,159
     
10,384
 
Non-cancelable operating leases — land, buildings and equipment
   
164,982
     
24,703
     
39,161
     
27,205
     
73,913
 
   
$
1,718,149
   
$
40,264
   
$
442,805
   
$
638,589
   
$
596,491
 

(a)
Towing vessel payments are determined in accordance with Topic 842, Leases, and exclude non-lease components.  The Company estimates that non-lease components comprise approximately 70% of charter rental costs, related to towboat crew costs, maintenance and insurance.

The Company’s pension plan funding strategy is to make annual contributions in amounts equal to or greater than amounts necessary to meet minimum government funding requirements. The ABO is based on a variety of demographic and economic assumptions, and the pension plan assets’ returns are subject to various risks, including market and interest rate risk, making an accurate prediction of the pension plan contribution difficult resulting in the Company electing to only make an expected pension contribution forecast of one year. As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s pension plan funding was 82% of the pension plans’ ABO, including the Higman pension plan. The Company expects to make additional pension contributions of $2,385,000 in 2021.

Accounting Standards

For a discussion of recently issued accounting standards, see Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.

Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

The Company is exposed to risk from changes in interest rates on certain of its outstanding debt. The outstanding loan balances under the Company’s bank credit facilities bear interest at variable rates based on prevailing short-term interest rates in the United States and Europe. A 1% increase in variable interest rates would impact the 2020 interest expense by $6,250,000 based on balances outstanding at December 31, 2020, and would change the fair value of the Company’s debt by approximately 3%.

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Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

The response to this item is submitted as a separate section of this report (see Item 15, page 102 and pages 61 to 101 of this report).

Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

Not applicable.

Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures

Disclosure Controls and Procedures. The Company’s management, with the participation of the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”)), as of December 31, 2020, as required by Rule 13a-15(b) under the Exchange Act. Based on that evaluation, the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of December 31, 2020, the disclosure controls and procedures were ef